"The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time
with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural
[Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to William Smith, Nov. 13,
"We must realize that today's Establishment is the new
George III. Whether it will continue to adhere to his
tactics, we do not know. If it does, the redress, honored in
tradition, is also revolution."
[Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, Points of
Rebellion, New York: Random House, 1970]
"I decided history needed a course correction, so I
reached for my keyboard."
[Jon Roland, March, 1994, before issuing a nationwide
Click on the button to get the indicated file
History of the Magna Carta and its Influence on the United States Constitution-U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia
Statements of the Founders
1788 --> Debate on the powers delegated in Art.
I Sec. 8, first day.
1788 --> Debate on the powers delegated in Art.
I Sec. 8, second day, especially the militia clauses.
"The right of the citizens to bear arms is just one more
guarantee against arbitrary government, one more safeguard
against the tyranny which now appears remote in America, but
which historically has proved to be always possible."
President Hubert H. Humphrey (1911-1978)]
RAIM --> Right to Assemble as an Independent Militia
Militia --> Defense activity, and those who engage in it. This is the
central page for information about the modern constitutional
James B. Whisker --> Standard references on the subject. Includes The Militia (1992) and The American Colonial Militia (1997).
First Congress Debate On Arms
And Militia 1789 --> Including debate on wording of Second
Reports to the U.S. Congress on military and militia matters.
Volume 1 contains reports from Mar. 3, 1789, through Mar. 3,
1819. See particularly the reports on militia organization and
militia returns showing organization and strength. Provides
insight into original thinking on militia and the right to keep
and bear arms.
The Right of the People to Keep
and Bear Arms: The Common Law Tradition, by Joyce Lee
Malcolm --> Explains how it is connected to militia duty.
of the Militia in the Development of the Englishman's Right to
be Armed --> Clarifying the Legacy, by Joyce Lee Malcolm.
A Dialogue Between X, Y, and Z,
Concerning the Present State of Affairs in Pennsylvania,
by Benjamin Franklin --> Discussion in a fictional dialogue of the
first colonial militia
law, from the The Pennsylvania Gazette, December
v. Inimicitia, Jon Roland --> Article: Jun. 24, 2000
The meaning of the phrase
"well-regulated" in the 2nd amendment --> From Brian T. Halonen.
Battle of Athens --> On August 2, 1946, the militia of
Athens, Tennessee, resorted to arms against corrupt officials to
restore the rule of law in McMinn County. This is their story.
reports and chronology on the Battle of Athens --> From
Swiss Report: A special study for Western Goals
Foundation, by General George S. Patton, U.S.A. (Ret.) and
General Lewis W. Walt, U.S.M.C. (Ret.), introduction by
Congressman Lawrence Patton McDonald, 1983 --> Analysis of Swiss
Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) --> Local copy as of 1997
Right of Defense Against Unlawful Arrest --> Quotes from
Quotes --> Guidance on interpreting the Constitution,
especially regarding firearms and the militia.
Militia Reading --> Published
works that discuss matters related to the constitutional militia
and the constitutional militia movement.
do in a mass shooting situation --> Practical methods.
Marque and Reprisal --> Collection of historical
examples with analysis.
"Our safety, our liberty, depends upon preserving the Constitution of the United States as our fathers made it
inviolate. The people of the United States are the rightful
masters of both Congress and the courts, not to overthrow
the Constitution, but to overthrow the men who pervert the
[Abraham Lincoln ]
Second Amendment Law Library --> Scholarly articles, federal and supreme court decisions, and
The Unabridged Second Amendment --> Grammatical analysis by an expert on English grammar and
to Keep and Bear Arms --> Report of the Senate Subcommitee
on the Constitution, 1982. Contains argument that gun-control
laws and enforcement of them are unconstitutional.
District of Columbia v. Heller, No. 07-290 (2008)
The Right of the People or the Power of the State, by Stephen Halbrook.
to Keep and Bear Arms under the Second and Fourteenth
Amendments, by Stephen Halbrook.
Simple Cite Be Trusted?: Lower Court Interpretations of United
v. Miller and the Second Amendment, Brannon P.
Embarrassing Second Amendment, by Sanford Levinson, Prof.
of Law, U. of Texas. Civil libertarians might not want to admit
it, but the Constitution really does protect the individual
right to keep and bear arms, and there are good reasons for
of Eugene Volokh on the Second Amendment, Senate Subcommittee
on the Constitution, Sept. 23, 1998 --> Reprinted as A
Right of the People, California Political Review,
Nov./Dec. 1998, p. 23. Reprinted here with permission of the
Safety or Bills of Attainder?, Jon Roland --> Law review
article written Jun. 14, 2000, published UWLA LR vol. 34, 2002.
Argues constitutional issues of current federal firearms
the Fourteenth Amendment was to Protect All Rights,
The Second Amendment and the
Personal Right to Arms, William W. Van Alstyne.
Racist Roots of Gun Control, Clayton E. Cramer. Kan.
J.L. & Pub. Pol'y, Winter 1995, at 17.
Second Amendment and States' Rights: A Thought Experiment,
Glenn Harlan Reynolds & Don Kates, 36 Wm. & Mary L. Rev.
Second Amendment: A Guard for Our Future Security, Andrew
M. Wayment, Idaho Law Review, Comments 37 (2000): 203.
Summary: U.S. Supreme Court on
the Right to Arms, Fielding Lewis Greaves.
of the U.S. department of Justice on the Right to Keep and
Bear Arms, August 24, 2004, Steven G. Bradbury, Principal
Deputy Assistant Attorney General, and others.
on the Constitutional Right to Keep and Bear Arms, Nelson
Lund, professor of law at the George Mason University School of
GunCite --> Extensive
collection of court decisions, articles, and commentary.
Liberty --> Using the First Amendment to protect the Second.
on the Second Amendment and Rights to Keep and Bear Arms in
State Constitutions, compiled by Eugene Volokh, UCLA Law
Kopel's Home Page --> News, articles, and links on the RKBA
and other constitutional issues.
Jeff Chan's Archive --> News,
articles, and links on the RKBA.
Gun Laws By State
Grass Roots Gunfights --> News, articles, and
links on the RKBA.
Keep and Bear Arms --> News, articles, and links on the RKBA.
Control Study --> Supports proposition that firearm carry
permits deter crime.
Gun Laws, Bloomfield Press -->
Publish firearm laws of every state and the federal government,
online and in print.
Liability --> Proposed statutes making the creators of
gun-free zones liable for any harm resulting from persons
being unable to defend themselves.
Articles by Miguel A. Faria Jr., M.D.:
--> 'Firearm Availability' and Violence.
Intent of the Second Amendment, by Nancy Ward --> Collection
Project Megiddo -->
Report of FBI analysis and recommendations for response to
"I was born an American. I
live as an American; I shall die an American; and I
intend to perform the duties incumbent upon me in that
character to the end of my career. I mean to do this
with absolute disregard to personal consequences. What
are the personal consequences? What is the individual
man with all the good or evil that may betide him, in
comparison with the good and evil which may befall a
great country, and in the midst of great transactions
which concern that country's fate? Let the consequences
be what they will, I am careless, No man can suffer too
much, and no man can fall too soon, if he suffer or if
he fall, in the defense of the liberties and
Constitution of his country."
Owners of America --> "The only no-compromise gun lobby in
Washington." --> Rep. Ron Paul (R-TX)
Jews For The Preservation Of
Firearms Ownership --> "America's Most Aggressive Defender
of Firearms Ownership."
The National Rifle Association
of America --> Largest organization of gun rights advocates,
but some say too willing to compromise on constitutional
NRA/ILA --> Institute for Legislation Action,
political action arm of the NRA
--> Takes positions independent of national HQ.
United NRA Members Council.
Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms (CCRKBA) -->
Another strong force for the RKBA.
Second Amendment Foundation(SAF)
--> Tax-deductible adjunct to the CCRKBA.
Firearms Coalition --> Neal
Texas State Rifle Association --> Firearm Rights for the Lone Star State.
Rifle Association/Political Action Committee -->
Opencarry.org --> Promotes
The Lawyer's Second Amendment
Society --> Unites constitutionalist lawyers.
Enforcement Alliance of America --> Unites law enforcement
professionals, opposes gun control.
PoliceGuide.com --> Your guide to cop culture. Favors 2nd Amendment rights.
Society --> Focus on Second Amendment compliance through
Against Gun Control --> Unites women who refuse to be
Females of America --> Pro-gun women on "full auto".
Students For The Second
Amendment --> The next generation cometh.
Firearms.org --> Sponsor
Amendment Committee --> News, articles, and links on the
National Shooting Sports
Foundation --> Support RKBA, but focus more on hunting and
SaveOurGuns --> Focus on defense against government tyranny.
2ndAmendment.com --> Fundraising for pro-RKBA organizations.
International Defensive Pistol
Association --> Promote firearm rights everywhere.
International Practical Shooting
Confederation (IPSC) --> Unites shooting organizations in
The United States Practical
Shooting Association (USPSA) --> U.S. affiliate of the IPSC.
Sportsmen's Association for
Firearms Education (SAFE.) --> Training in the safe use of
Rights --> Defend right to keep and bear knives and
other non-firearm weapons.
Firearms Association --> Canadian RKBA organization that is
not as militant.
Pro Tell --> Swiss
RKBA/Militia organization. Mainly in German, French, and
Forum Waffenrecht --> German
RKBA organization. In German.
Waffenrecht in -->sterreich (IW-->) --> Austrian RKBA
organization. In German.
for Guns --> Indian RKBA organization.
Air Force. Formerly named the Confederate Air Force --> The
Militia needs an air force, too. This is mainly recreational,
but in a crisis....
Civil Air Patrol -->
Government-sponsored, but actually a kind of militia activity.
American Red Cross --> Relief
for victims of disasters. Disaster response is militia also.
"Liberty is defended in three stages: The ballot box, the
jury box, and the cartridge box."
The Gun Feed --> Good source for news and information on firearms issues.
"Let us remember, that 'if we suffer tamely a lawless
attack upon our liberty, we encourage it, and involve others
in our doom.' It is a very serious consideration, which
should deeply impress our minds, that millions yet unborn
may be the miserable sharers in the event."
Scholars, lawyers, and Useful Resources
Gunscholar --> Eugene Volokh's
compilation of links to scholars on gun rights and the Second
Second Amendment supreme Court Cases Guide --> Second
Amendment supreme Court Cases Guide.
P. Halbrook --> Attorney specializing in constitutional
cases, especially involving the Second Amendment.
Grossack --> Constitutional attorney based in Massachusetts.