Voting Theory and Reform
Many people erroneously think that the Constitution requires the present
system of plurality, winner-take-all voting, but except for votes of the
Electoral College and some votes in Congress, the method of voting is left to
legislation, and other methods could be adopted.
Mathematics of Voting
Standards & Criteria for Evaluating & Comparing Multi-Alternative
Single-Winner Social Choice Methods, by Mike Ossipoff
Proxy Voting — An alternative to single-member districts for legislature houses based on population.
Proposed Voting System Alternative: Multiple-Selection, Winner-Take-All
- New Democracy
Comparison of Alternative Methods
Donald G. Saari
Home Page — Voting theorist.
Borda Voting — Named for Jean Charles Borda (1733-1799),
French mathematician, aided American War of Independence, proposed system of
preference voting used today to rank teams in leagues.
Approval Voting — Method in which voters cast votes to
approve or disapprove candidates, with election going to those with most
Voting Home Page.
Voting, by Robert J. Weber.
systems: Approval voting.
Proposed Voting System Alternative: Multiple-Selection,
Instant runoff voting — If no candidate gets a majority, the votes of those who voted for him as their second choice would be added to his count, and so forth until one candidate emerges as acceptible by the largest majority. This could result in the election of a candidate that was everybody's second choice, such as a minor party candidate.
Range voting — Each voter rates his approval of each candiate on a scale, and the ratings are averaged, with the candidate having the highest average (perhaps above a certain threshhold to allow for rejection of all candidates) being deemed the winner.
Methods, by Lorrie Cranor.
of Preference? Defending the Single Transferable Vote, by Thomas
Rule" Voting: The Impact of Campaigns on Party and Approval-Based Voting,
by Shanto Iyengar and John R. Petrocik.
- A review of several
systems of voting in symmetric democratic elections
American: Ask the Experts
Fairer Way to Vote, Donald
Center for Voting and
Democracy — Advocate fair and representative elections.
Demonstration of preference voting.
Direct Representation —
Advocate a kind of proxy voting by representatives in legislatures.
Analysis of an Electronic Voting
System, by Tadayoshi Kohno, Adam Stubblefield, Aviel D. Rubin and Dan S.
Technology & Democracy, by Paul M. Schwartz.
Organizations & Publications
Inclusion here is not an endorsement. We advise everyone to check out
each offering with extreme skepticism.
Also see Approaches to
Electoral Reform and The Sortition Option