Spinoza: Political Treatise
the theory and practice of political science.
4. Of the author's design.
5. Of the force of the passions in men.
That we must not look to proofs of reason for the causes and foundations
of dominion, but deduce them from the general nature or condition of
1. Right, natural and civil.
2. Essence, ideal and real.
What natural right is.
6. The vulgar opinion about liberty. Of
the first man's fall.
liberty and necessity.
11. He is free, who is led by reason.
12. Of giving and breaking one's word by
13. Of alliances formed between men.
14. Men naturally enemies.
15. The more there are that come
together, the more right all collectively have.
16. Every one has so much the less
right, the more the rest collectively exceed him in power.
17. Of dominion and its three kinds.
18. That in the state of nature one can
do no wrong.
What wrong-doing and obedience are.
22. The free man.
23. The just and unjust man.
24. Praise and blame.
CHAPTER III. OF THE RIGHT OF
1. A commonwealth, affairs of state,
2. Right of a dominion same as natural
the ordinance of the commonwealth a citizen may not live after his own
Every citizen is dependent not on himself, but on the commonwealth.
10. A question about religion.
Of the right of supreme authorities against the world at large.
13. Two commonwealths naturally hostile.
Of the state of treaty, war, and peace.
CHAPTER IV. OF THE FUNCTIONS OF
What matters are affairs of state.
what sense it can, in what it cannot be said, that a commonwealth does
CHAPTER V. OF THE BEST STATE OF A
1. That is best which is ordered
according to the dictate of reason.
end of the civil state. The best dominion.
7. Machiavelli and his design.
the causes of establishing a dominion.
4. Of conferring the authority on one
the nature of a monarchy. Of the foundations of a monarchical dominion.
9. Of cities.
10. Of the militia and its commanders.
11. Of dividing the citizens into clans.
12. Of lands and houses.
Of the election of the king and of the nobles.
Of the king's counsellors.
Of the supreme council's functions.
Of another council for administering justice.
30. Of other subordinate councils.
31. Of the payment of the militia.
32. Of the rights of foreigners.
33. Of ambassadors.
34. Of the king's servants and
35. Of waging war.
36. Of the king's marriage.
Of the heir to the dominion.
39. Of the obedience of the citizens.
40. Of religion.
CHAPTER VII. OF MONARCHY. PROOF
OF THE FOUNDATIONS OF A MONARCHICAL DOMINION.
1. The monarch is not chosen
unconditionally. The Persian kings. Ulysses.
2. Nature of our monarchy the best and
3. It is necessary that the monarch have
4. The counsellors must necessarily be
5. The king's right is to select one of
the opinions offered by the council.
The great advantages of this council.
12. The militia to be composed of
13. How the counsellors are to be
King's safety. Evidence of history.
16. Cities to be fortified.
17. Of mercenaries and military
18. Citizens to be divided into clans.
19. The soil to be the common property
of the commonwealth.
20. None to be noble but the issue of
21. Judges to be appointed for a term of
22. The militia to be given no pay.
23. Of foreigners and the king's
24. Of the dangers from the king's
marriage. Evidence of history.
25. Of the right of succession to the
26. Of the right of worshipping God.
27. All men's nature is one and the
28. Of the most durable dominion of all.
29. Of hardly concealing the plans of
30. The example of the dominion of the
31. That the multitude may preserve
under a king an ample enough liberty.
1. What aristocracy is. Patricians.
2. An aristocracy should consist of a
large number of patricians.
3. Difference between monarchy and
Aristocracy approaches nearer to absolutism than monarchy.
7. Is also fitter to maintain liberty.
Foundations of an aristocracy where one city is head of a whole dominion.
8. Of fortifying towns.
9. Of the military and its leaders.
10. Of the sale of lands and farms.
11. Of the supreme council of
12. Of the causes of the destruction of
13. The primary law of this dominion, to
prevent its lapsing into oligarchy.
Patricians to be chosen out of certain families.
16. Of the place and time of assembling.
17. Of the supreme council's functions.
18. Of the ruler or chief of the
19. Equality to be observed among
Of the syndics and their functions.
Of the ministers of the dominion.
28. Voting to be by ballot.
Of the senate or second council.
Of the presidents of the senate and their deputies. Consuls.
Of the bench or college of judges.
42. Governors of cities and provinces.
Right of the neighbouring cities.
43. Judges to be appointed in every
44. Ministers of dominion to be chosen
from the commons.
45. Of the tribunes of the treasury.
46. Of freedom of worship and speech.
47. Of the bearing and state of the
48. Of the oath.
49. Of academies and liberty of
1. Of the aristocratic dominion held by
more than one city.
2. Confederate cities.
3. Of points common to both kinds of
4. Of the common bond of the cities by a
senate and tribunal.
5. Supreme council and senate.
6. Of assembling this council, of
choosing generals and ambassadors, of the presidents of the orders,
7. Of commanders of battalions and
8. Of tributes.
9. Of the senators' emoluments and place
10. Of the councils and syndics of the
11. Consuls of cities.
12. Judges of cities.
13. Of dependent cities.
This kind of aristocracy to be preferred to the other.
1. Primary cause, why aristocracies are
dissolved. Of a dictator.
2. Of the supreme council.
3. Of the tribunes of the commons among
4. Of the authority of the syndics.
5. Sumptuary laws.
Vices not to be forbidden directly, but indirectly.
8. Honours and rewards rejected.
An aristocracy may be stable.
Difference between democracy and aristocracy.
3. Of the nature of democracy.
4. Women to be excluded from government.
Treatise 1677 Cover Page