Defendant Vol. Series Page Altern. Year Synopsis Red Square Decision correct Opinion correct Comment

Hayburn's Case

2 U.S. 409 2 Da. 1792 Decisions of courts under Article III not subject to revision by legislative or executive action. FALSE Yes Yes

Chisholm v. Georgia 2 U.S. 419 2 Da. 1793 Held that supreme or sovereign power was retained by citizens themselves, not by the "artificial person" of the State of Georgia. The Constitution made clear that controversies between individual states and citizens of other states were under the jurisdiction of federal courts. State conduct was subject to federal judicial review. Reaction produced the Eleventh Amendment, intended to prevent cases of this kind. FALSE Yes Yes
Georgia v. Brailsford 3 U.S. 1 3 Da. 1794 Jury has power to judge law in bringing general verdict. TRUE Yes Yes

Hylton v. U.S. 3 U.S. 171 3 Da. 1796 Sustained a tax on carriages as one on their "use" and therefore an "excise", subject only to the rule of uniformity, and not a "direct" tax subject to the rule of apportionment by population. FALSE No No Tax on carriage fees would have been excise, but not on possession of them.

Ware v. Hylton 3 U.S. 199 3 Da. 1796 Struck down a state statute that impaired the execution of a treaty, based on Supremacy Clause, but refused to pass on the question whether a treaty had been broken, as an improper interference with executive discretion under the separations of powers principle. FALSE Yes Yes

Hollingsworth v. Virginia 3 U.S. 378 3 Da. 1798 Congress may propose amendments to the Constitution by concurrent resolution, not requiring signature by the President. FALSE Yes Yes
Calder v. Bull 3 U.S. 386 3 Da. 1798 Every law, which makes criminal an act that was innocent when done, or which inflicts a greater punishment than the law annexed to the crime when committed, is an ex post facto law within the prohibition of the Constitution. Ex post facto clause applies only to penal and criminal statutes. TRUE Yes Yes
Marbury v. Madison 5 U.S. 137 1803 Courts must not sustain unconstitutional acts of government. TRUE Yes No Correct would have been that property right had not vested.

Ex parte
Bollman 8 U.S. 75 4 Cr. 1807 Power to suspend habeas corpus vested only in Congress, but "the power to award the writ by any of the courts of the United States, must be given by written law." FALSE Partly Partly Courts don't award writs, but hear writs filed by persons, and either authorize detention or not.
U.S. v. Burr 8 U.S. 469 4 Cr. 1807 Established standards of evidence for treason. TRUE Yes Yes

Bank of the United States v. Deveaux 9 U.S. 61 5 Cr. 1809 “That invisible, intangible, and artificial being, that mere legal entity, a corporation aggregate, is certainly not a citizen; and consequently cannot sue or be sued in the courts of the United States, unless the rights of the members, in this respect, can be exercised in their corporate name." FALSE Yes Yes But rights of members can always be thus exercised.

Fletcher v. Peck 10 U.S. 87 6 Cr. 1810 Held that the contracts clause protected public grants. The first case in which the Supreme Court held a state enactment to be in conflict with the Constitution. FALSE Yes Yes
U.S. v. Hudson 11 U.S. 32 7 Cr. 1812 Courts have no jurisdiction over common law crimes, but have inherent power to punish for contempt. TRUE Yes Partly Correct would have been that common law crimes are ex post facto.

The Brig Aurora

11 U.S. 382 7 Cr. 1813 Congress may legislate contingently, leaving to others the task of ascertaining the facts that bring its declared policy into operation. The revival of a law upon the issuance of a presidential proclamation was upheld. FALSE Partly Partly Opens way to delegation of lawmaking authority unless narrowly construed.

Martin v. Hunter's Lessee 14 U.S. 304 1 Wh. 1816 Constitution emanated from the people and was not the act of sovereign and independent States. FALSE Yes Yes

Sturges v. Crowninshield 17 U.S. 122 4 Wh. 1819 A State is without power to enforce any law governing bankruptcies, which impairs the obligation of contracts. FALSE Yes Yes
McCulloch v. Maryland 17 U.S. 316 4 Wh. 1819 National Bank was tax-exempt federal agency. Constitution emanated from the people and was not the act of sovereign and independent States. TRUE No No National bank also had commercial activity. Only its handling of federal funds is properly exempt. But worst was expansion of meaning of “necessary and proper".

Houston v. Moore 18 U.S. 1 5 Wh. 1820 A militiaman who refused to obey a militia call-up was not "employed in the service of the United States so as to be subject to the article of war", but was liable to be tried for disobedience of the act of 1795. FALSE Yes Yes

Anderson v. Dunn 19 U.S. 204 6 Wh. 1821 Either branch of the legislature may attach and punish a person other than a member for contempt of its authority. Imprisonment by one of the Houses of Congress could not extend beyond the adjournment of the body which ordered it. Led to Act of January 24, 1857, 11 Stat. 155, which established penalties for contempt of Congress. With only minor modification, this statute is now 2 U.S.C. Sec. 192. FALSE No No Amendment needed for such authority.

Cohens v. Virginia 19 U.S. 264 6 Wh. 1821 Established two classes of jurisdiction, the first based on character of the cause (federal question), the second based on the character of the parties. FALSE Yes Yes
Gibbons v. Ogden 22 U.S. 1 9 Wh. 1824 Expanded definition of "commerce" from only transport and sale of tangible commodities to include "traffic", "navigation" or "commercial intercourse", and every species of movement of persons and things, whether for profit or not, across state lines. Expanded definition of "regulate" to be considered "plenary as to those objects". TRUE No No Distorted original meaning of “commerce" and “regulate".

Wayman v. Southard 23 U.S. 1 10 Wh. 1825 Nondelegation doctrine based on separation of powers. The federal courts may establish rules of practice, provided such rules were not repugnant to the laws of the United States. Judicial power to make rules of procedure derived from, and subject to, congressional regulation. FALSE Partly Partly Each court may establish some kinds of rules for itself, but not for other courts.

Ogden v. Saunders 25 U.S. 213 12 Wh. 1827 Act of Congress to be presumed constitutional until proven otherwise. Narrowed by Kovacs v. Cooper, 336 U.S. 77 (1949) FALSE No No Presumption must always be against having authority.

American Ins. Co. v. Canter 26 U.S. 511 1 Pe. 1828 Congress authorized to create "legislative" (Article I) courts, as distinct from "constitutional" (Article III) courts, with judicial powers, and jurisdiction in non-state territories. Resulting powers. Government has powers which result from the whole mass of the powers of the National Government, and from the nature of political society, beyond those which are a consequence or incident of the powers specially enumerated. FALSE Partly No Can create administrative agencies with advisory powers only. There are no “resulting" powers.

Willson v. Black Bird Creek Marsh Co. 27 U.S. 245 2 Pe. 1829 Denied a challenge of a state law authorizing the building of a dam across a navigable creek, claiming the law was in conflict with the federal power to regulate interstate commerce, saying that the state act could not be "considered as repugnant to the [federal] power to regulate commerce in its dormant state[.]" (Origin of "dormant commerce clause" doctrine.) FALSE Yes Yes

Worcester v. Georgia 31 U.S. 515
1832 Upheld rights of Cherokees to remain in Georgia and retain their lands, and struck down state actions intended to deprive them of such lands, but Pres. Jackson refused to comply with court order, and allowed Cherokees to be driven out. FALSE Yes Yes But President Jackson defied the court decision.

U.S. v. Wilson 32 U.S. 150 7 Pe. 1833 Defined legal nature of a pardon as a grant of relief from enforcement of a court sentence. FALSE Yes Yes
Barron v. Baltimore 32 U.S. 243
1833 Federal courts do not have jurisdiction in cases in which a citizen sues his state for violation of any of the Bill of Rights. TRUE No No Bill of Rights, except for the First, extended federal court jurisdiction to such cases.

U.S. v. Clarke 33 U.S. 436 8 Pe. 1834 The United States is "not suable of common right, the party who institutes such suit must bring his case within the authority of some act of Congress." Established doctrine of sovereign immunity for federal government. FALSE No No Government must always be suable, but is immune from execution of money judgment except through process established by law.

U.S. v. Bailey 34 U.S. 238 9 Pe. 1835 Upheld prosecution for violation of a regulation rather than the act itself. FALSE No No Violates nondelegation principle.

Rhode Island v. Massachusetts 37 U.S. 657 12 Pe. 1838 “[T]he distribution and appropriate exercise of the judicial power must ... be made by laws passed by Congress. ..." FALSE Yes Partly
Games v. Dunn 39 U.S. 322 14 Pe. 1840 When judge and jury disagree on a question of law, the decision of the judge prevails. Previously, the decision of the jury prevailed. Enabled judge to decide cases without a jury. TRUE No No Either judge or jury may override the other in favor of the defendant on both fact and law. See Stettinius v. U.S.

Groves v. Slaughter 40 U.S. 449 15 Pe. 1841 The power to regulate commerce did not imply the power to prohibit it. FALSE Yes Yes Overturned by Champion v. Ames (1903).

Louisville, C. & C.R. Co. v. Letson 43 U.S. 497 2 Ho. 1844 “[A] corporation created by and doing business in a particular State, is to be deemed to all intents and purposes as a person, although an artificial person, an inhabitant of the same State, for the purposes of its incorporation, capable of being treated as a citizen of that State, as much as a natural person." FALSE Yes Partly Person yes, but not citizen. Only follows 2000 years of law regarding persons as roles in judicial proceedings.

Luther v. Borden 48 U.S. 1 7 Ho. 1849 Found that the Rhode Island legislature had been authorized to resort to the rights and usages of war in combating insurrection in that State, and that state declarations of martial law were conclusive and therefore not subject to judicial review, but properly within the discretion of Congress and the President. But the "insurrection", Dorr's Rebellion, was an attempt to compel compliance with state constitution by noncompliant state government, after exhausting lesser remedies. FALSE No No Failure to guarantee republican form of government.

Marshall v. Baltimore & Ohio R. Co. 57 U.S. 314 16 Ho. 1854 Created a conclusive presumption that all of the stockholders of a corporation are citizens of the State of incorporation, for purposes of representing them as a single corporate person. FALSE No No Prudential decision, not a constitutional one.

Murray's Lessee v. Hoboken Land & Improvement Co. 59 U.S. 272 18 Ho. 1856 Sustained tax assessment and collection as executive acts which may be decided in Article I court. FALSE No No Presumption must always be against having authority.

Ex parte
Secombe 60 U.S. 9 19 Ho. 1857 The power of the federal courts to admit and disbar attorneys rests on the common law from which it was originally derived. FALSE No No Amendment needed for such authority.

Dred Scott v. Sandford 60 U.S. 393 19 Ho. 1857 Held rights protected by Constitution apply to citizens rather than persons, and that blacks and their descendants were not embraced within the term "citizen" as used in the Constitution. FALSE No No Rights explicitly attach to personhood, not citizenship, in Constitution.

Kentucky v. Dennison 65 U.S. 66 24 Ho. 1861 In all cases where original jurisdiction is given by the Constitution, the Supreme Court has authority "to exercise it without further act of Congress to regulate its powers or confer jurisdiction..." FALSE Yes Yes

The Prize Cases

67 U.S. 635 2 Bl. 1863 Sustained the blockade of the Southern ports instituted by Lincoln in 1861, without a declaration of war, at a time when Congress was not in session, affirming a state of war could exist without formal declaration by Congress, imposed by the enemy, and requiring an immediate response without first getting authority from Congress in a declaration of war. FALSE No No Amendment needed for such authority.

Ex parte
Vallandigham 68 U.S. 243 1 Wa. 1864 Held only Congress can authorize the substitution of military tribunals for civil tribunals for the trial of offenses; and Congress can do so only in wartime, but while war was still flagrant it had no power to review the proceedings of a military commission ordered by a general officer of the Army. FALSE No No Amendment needed for such authority.

Gilman v. Philadelphia 70 U.S. 713 3 Wa. 1866 Congress has jurisdiction under commerce clause over "all the navigable waters of the United States which are accessible from a State other than those in which they lie" and that this "includes the power to keep them open and free from any obstruction to their navigation, interposed by the States or otherwise; to remove such obstructions when they exist; and to provide, by such sanctions as they may deem proper, against the occurrence of the evil and for the punishment of offenders." FALSE No No Commerce power only authorizes requirement to pass through inspection checkpoints, does not confer territorial jurisdiction.
Ex parte
Milligan 71 U.S. 2 4 Wa. 1866 Trial by a military commission of a civilian charged with disloyalty in a part of the country remote from the theater of military operations was held invalid. Civil court review of court-martial decisions is possible through habeas corpus jurisdiction. "The Constitution of the United States is a law for rulers and people, equally in war and in peace, and covers with the shield of its protection all classes of men, at all times, and under all circumstances." Held the Writ is not suspended but only the privilege, so that the Writ would issue and the issuing court on its return would determine whether the person applying can proceed. TRUE Yes Yes

Missouri 71 U.S. 277 4 Wa. 1867 Cummings v. Missouri, 4 Wall. (71 U.S.) 277, 323 (1867) The phrase "bill of attainder", as used in Art. I Sec. 9 and 10 applies to bills of pains and penalties as well as to the traditional bills of attainder imposing capital penalties. FALSE Yes Yes Goes beyond language of Constitution, but not beyond apparent intended meaning.

Ex parte
Garland 71 U.S. 333 4 Wa. 1867 Effect of pardon is to prevent or remove all penalties and disabilities that result, or might result, from a conviction and sentence, and in this case, relieved person from having to declare guilt for a pardoned offense in an oath required for the practice of law. FALSE Yes Partly Pardon only relieves punishment, not conviction, but does raise sufficient doubt about conviction.

Mississippi v. Johnson 71 U.S. 475 4 Wa. 1867 President declared beyond the reach of judicial direction, either affirmative or restraining, in the exercise of his powers, whether constitutional or statutory, political or otherwise, save perhaps for what must be a small class of powers that are purely ministerial. FALSE Partly Partly Judicial orders may not be enforceable on President, but can be issued anyway.

DeGroot v. U.S. 72 U.S. 419 5 Wa. 1867 Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction over Article I courts. FALSE Yes Yes
Ex parte
McCardle 74 U.S. 506
1868 Congress may remove jurisdiction from the Supreme Court. TRUE No No It may remove jurisdiction it has conferred, but only to move it to another appellate court.

Paul v. Virginia 75 U.S. 168 8 Wa. 1869 Insurance transactions carried on across state lines not interstate commerce. Later overturned by United States v. South-Eastern Underwriters Assn., 322 U.S. 533 (1944). FALSE Yes Yes Services not included in “commerce".

Veazie Bank v. Fenno 75 U.S. 533 8 Wa. 1869 Congress may restrain the circulation of notes not issued under its own authority. FALSE No No

Knox v. Lee (Legal Tender Cases) 79 U.S. 457 12 Wa. 1871 Congress had authority to issue treasury notes and to make them legal tender in satisfaction of antecedent debts. FALSE No No

U.S. v. Klein 80 U.S. 128 13 Wa. 1872 President has authority under the pardon power to grant amnesty for completed offenses against the United States not yet indicted. FALSE No No Pardon power is not authority to control judicial processes.

Reading Railroad v. Pennsylvania (State Freight Tax Case) 82 U.S. 232 15 Wa. 1873 First case to strike down a state law solely on commerce clause grounds. FALSE Yes Partly

Slaughterhouse Cases

83 U.S. 36
1873 Introduced notion of substantive due process and practice of selective incorporation of federal rights under the 14th Amendment. FALSE Yes No Introduced “selective incorporation" and disparaged “privileges or immunities".

Ex parte
Robinson 86 U.S. 505 19 Wa. 1874 “The power to punish for contempts is inherent in all courts." FALSE No Partly Judges can control their court sessions but amendment needed to enforce orders beyond session.

New Orleans v. The Steamship Co. 87 U.S. 387 20 Wa. 1874 The Constitution does not follow the advancing troops into conquered territory. Persons in such territory held entirely beyond the reach of constitutional limitations and subject to the laws of war as interpreted and applied by the Congress and the President. FALSE No Partly Depends on the situation.

Kohl v. U.S. 91 U.S. 367
1875 Extended power of federal eminent domain to parcels on state territory without state legislative consent or having to go through state eminent domain process. FALSE No No No federal eminent domain power on state territory.

U.S. v. Fox 95 U.S. 670
1877 Reversed conviction for bankruptcy fraud, but in dictum affirmed Congress has power to create, define, and punish crimes and offenses whenever necessary to effectuate the objects of the Federal Government, without an express delegation of penal power, under necessary and proper clause, thereby abandoning doctrine of 1798 that Congress had no such implied penal powers. FALSE No No Amendment needed for such authority.
U.S. v. Hall 98 U.S. 343
1878 Congress may prohibit embezzlement of pension payments, enforceable by deprivation of liberty. TRUE No No Amendment needed for such authority.

Tennessee v. Davis 100 U.S. 257
1880 Sustained removal from a state to a federal court of a criminal prosecution against a federal officer for acts done under color of federal law. FALSE No No Amendment needed for such authority.

U.S. v. Lee 106 U.S. 196
1882 Qualified earlier holdings to the effect that where a judgment affected the property of the United States the suit was in effect against the United States, by ruling that title to property was not legally vested in the United States but was being held illegally under an unlawful order of the President. FALSE Yes Yes

U.S. v. Stanley (Civil Rights Cases) 109 U.S. 3
1883 The Equal Protection and Enforcement Clauses of 14th amendment apply only to state action, not discrimination by private individuals or privately owned businesses. But see U.S. v. Guest (1966). FALSE Yes Yes

Julliard v. Greenman (Legal Tender Cases) 110 U.S. 421
1884 Congress may authorize the issuance of treasury notes impressed with the quality of legal tender in payment of private debts. FALSE No No Opened way to debt-based currencies.
Hurtado v. California 110 U.S. 516
1884 States not required to indict by grand jury. TRUE No No

Ex parte
Yarbrough 110 U.S. 651
1884 Congress has implied power to punish conspiracy to injure a citizen in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured by the Constitution or laws of the United States. FALSE Yes Partly Only applies to state actors, mot private persons or federal actors.

Head Money Cases

112 U.S. 580
1884 Treaties do not prevail over later acts of Congress in conflict with them, but are superseded by principle of leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant, and act of Congress may rescind a treaty. FALSE Yes Yes

U.S. v. Kagama 118 U.S. 375
1886 Rejecting the commerce clause as a basis for congressional enactment of a system of criminal laws for Indians living on reservations, the Court nevertheless sustained the act on the ground that the Federal Government had the obligation and thus the power to protect a weak and dependent people. FALSE No No Amendment needed for such authority.

Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific R.R. 118 U.S. 394
1886 Taken as precedent that a corporation is a "person" under 14th Amendment, but that expressed only in headnote, not in opinion. FALSE Yes Partly Defective on other points.

U.S. v. Pacific Railroad 120 U.S. 227
1887 Held that the United States was not responsible for the injury or destruction of private property by military operations, but claims for property of loyal citizens taken for the use of the national forces were compensable. FALSE No No

Baldwin v. Franks 120 U.S. 678
1887 Congress may penalize private acts of violence within a state if such act violates the rights of an alien under a treaty. FALSE Yes Yes Law of nations.

Callan v. Wilson 127 U.S. 540
1888 Residents of federal enclave under Art. I Sec. 8 cl. 17 are entitled to all the guarantees of the United States Constitution including the privilege of trial by jury. FALSE Yes Yes

Kidd v. Pearson 128 U.S. 1
1888 Manufacturing, even when the product would move in interstate commerce, is not reachable under the commerce clause. Later overturned by NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp., 301 U.S. 1 (1937). FALSE Yes Yes

Hans v. Louisiana 134 U.S. 1
1890 Held Eleventh Amendment creates sovereign immunity of states against suits by their own citizens, as well as by citizens of other states. FALSE No No Immunity from execution of money judgment but not from suit, except from funds appropriated by law.

In re
Neagle 135 U.S. 1
1890 Established rule that federal actor may not be charged or convicted under state law if the subject was performing federal duties at the time. FALSE No No Although a conviction could be appealed.

In re v. Ross 140 U.S. 453
1891 Constitution made for, and is binding only in, the United States of America. FALSE Yes Partly Does follow U.S. government personnel abroad.

U.S. v. Texas 143 U.S. 621
1892 Federal courts have jurisdiction, as a federal question, in case of United States against a state, even though the United States not an enumerated party in Article III. FALSE Yes Yes

Field v. Clark 143 U.S. 649
1892 Nondelegation doctrine based on separation of powers. FALSE Yes Yes Based on clear language delegating legislative power exclusively to Congress.

Logan v. U.S. 144 U.S. 263
1892 Congress may prohibit injury or death of persons in custody of U.S. officials, caused by any person, enforceable by deprivation of life or liberty. FALSE No No Amendment needed for such authority, except on non-state territory.

U.S. v. E. C. Knight Co. (Sugar Trust Case) 156 U.S. 1
1895 Constitutionality of Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 not addressed, but decision on construction of the Act impaired its effectiveness. "... the independence of the commercial power and of the police power, and the delimination between them ... should always be recognized and observed..." Maintained that: production is always local, and under the exclusive domain of the States; commerce among the States does not begin until goods "commence their final movement from their State of origin to that of their destination"; the sale of a product is merely an incident of its production. Commerce clause only extends to activity with a "direct" effect on interstate commerce. Overturned by Swift & Co. v. United States, 196 U.S. 375 (1905). FALSE No Partly “Activity" not included in “commerce".
Sparf & Hansen v. U.S. 156 U.S. 51 ,64 1895 Jurors do not need to be informed of their power to judge the law in bringing a general verdict. TRUE No No Instruction may not be needed but judge does not have authority to prevent them from being so informed.
Coffin v. U.S. 156 U.S. 432
1895 Court must instruct jury in criminal case that accused is presumed innocent. TRUE Yes Yes Prudential decision, not a constitutional one.

Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. 157 U.S. 429
1895 Interest received by a private investor on state or municipal bonds was held to be exempt from federal taxation, and tax on income from property is a direct tax subject to apportionment. Income tax amendment intended to overturn. (Overturned by South Carolina v. Baker, 485 U.S. 505 (1988).) FALSE No No Tax on revenue to corporate entity is never direct, because it can be passed on to individuals. It may or may not be to individuals, depending on whether they can pass it on.

Plessy v. Ferguson 163 U.S. 537
1896 Sustained Louisiana's 1890 Separate Car Act, held that "separate" facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional as long as they were "equal." The "separate but equal" doctrine was later extended to cover many areas of public life, such as restaurants, theaters, restrooms, and public schools, but was overturned by Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483. FALSE No Partly Violated equal protection by making a racial distinction, but only to the extent of state actor involvement.

In re
Kollock 165 U.S. 526
1897 Sustained a criminal conviction for violation of a regulation under an act to regulate commerce, which was ruled merely a matter of detail. FALSE No No Opened way to criminal prosecution under Commerce Clause.

Addyston Pipe and Steel Co. v. U.S. 175 U.S. 211
1899 Upheld Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to break up industrial combination to divide territories among themselves. FALSE No No Amendment needed for such authority, except on non-state territory.

Louisiana v. Texas 176 U.S. 1
1900 Recognized right of a State to sue as parens patriae, on behalf of its citizens, but denied it standing in this particular case. FALSE Partly Partly

De Lima v. Bidwell 182 U.S. 1
1901 The Constitution is not automatically applicable in all territories acquired by the United States, the question turning upon whether Congress has made the area "incorporated" or "unincorporated" territory. FALSE Partly Partly

Downes v. Bidwell 182 U.S. 244
1901 Constitution made for, and is binding only in, the United States of America. FALSE Yes Partly Does follow U.S. government personnel abroad.

Reid v. Colorado 187 U.S. 137
1902 Upheld first statute, passed in 1884, to impose criminal penalties for a violation of a regulation of interstate commerce, which prohibited transportation of diseased livestock across a state line. This overturned understanding that commerce power did not imply penal power. FALSE No No Opened way to criminal prosecution under Commerce Clause.

Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock 187 U.S. 553
1903 Sustained statute which modified rights of Indian tribal members in tribal lands, thereby violating treaty with them. FALSE No No

Champion v. Ames 188 U.S. 321
1903 Extended power to regulate to include power to prohibit. FALSE No No

McCray v. U.S. 195 U.S. 27
1904 Tax may be imposed for regulatory or prohibitory purposes rather than to raise revenue. FALSE No No

Swift & Co. v. U.S. 196 U.S. 375
1905 Business transactions, and the like, which are antecedent to or subsequent to a move across state lines, are conceived to be part of an integrated commercial whole and therefore subject to the reach of the commerce power. FALSE No No
Lochner v. New York 198 U.S. 45
1905 State statute restricting hours of work is a violation of due-process protection of 14th Amendment. TRUE Yes Yes