From Wikipedia, Republic of Genoa
The Republic of Genoa, a communal republic and a state of the Holy
Roman Empire, from 1339 until the state's extinction in 1797.
Originally elected for life, after 1528 the Doges were elected for
terms of two years. In actuality, the Republic (or Dogate) was an
oligarchy ruled by a small group of merchant families, from whom the
doges were selected.
The first doge ("duke") of Genoa, Simone Boccanegra, whose name is
kept alive by Verdi's opera, was appointed by public acclaim in
1339. Initially the Doge of Genoa was elected without restriction
and by popular suffrage, holding office for life in the so-called
"perpetual dogate"; but after the reform effected by Andrea Doria in
1528 the term of his office was reduced to two years. At the same
time plebeians were declared ineligible, and the appointment of the
doge was entrusted to the members of the great council, the Gran
Consiglio, who employed for this purpose a political system almost
as complex as that of the later Venetians.
Of all the "perpetual" doges of Genoa who ruled for their lifetime,
only one ruled for more than eight years. Many resigned or were
driven out before taking office. Some failed to complete a single
day in power. Between 1339 and 1528, only four doges were legally
elected. Genoa did not trust its doges; the ruling caste of Genoa
tied them to executive committees, kept them on a small budget, and
kept them apart from the communal revenues held at the "Casa di San
Giorgio". Not surprisingly, the doges of Genoa have been less
renowned than the doges of Venice.
Still, the position of doge stood at the head of state patronage,
and the city's inner group of leading merchant families vied with
each other to place their man in the position. Rival elections were
known to take place within the building. In 1389, a frustrated
candidate made a surprise return from enforced exile accompanied by
7,000 supporters, and after dining amicably with the incumbent,
politely but firmly ejected him, thanking him for serving so ably as
his deputy during his own "unavoidable absence" from Genoa.
For generations two powerful families in Genoa all but monopolized
the dogate: the Adorno, supporters of imperial power in the Middle
Ages, and the Campofregoso or Fregoso, supporters of papal power.
Tomaso di Campofregoso became doge three times: in 1415, 1421 and
1437. In 1461, Paolo Fregoso, archbishop of Genoa, enticed the
current doge to his own palace, held him hostage and offered him the
choice of retiring from the post or being hanged. When Fregoso was
in due course himself toppled, he fled to the harbor, commandeered
four galleys and launched himself on a whole new career as a pirate.
While the doge's palace in Venice accumulated great furnishings and
works of art over the years, in Genoa, each doge was expected to
arrive with his own furnishings and, when he left, to strip the
palace to its bare walls.
Genoa's power peaked early, and it was eclipsed by Venice. In the
16th century the republic enjoyed a dramatic revival under the
leadership of the admiral, statesman and patron of the arts Andrea
Doria who ruled the state as a virtual dictator but never actually
became doge. It was through the Spanish empire in the New World that
Genoa became rich again. Doria served the Spanish Habsburgs as
admiral-in-chief, and the bankers of Genoa handled Spain's financial
business, which vastly enriched Genoa's banking oligarchy.
The Napoleonic Wars put an end to the office of doge at Genoa. In
1797, when Napoleon Bonaparte incorporated Genoa into the newly
organized Ligurian Republic, French soldiers and the city's mob
ransacked the doge's palace.