Notes on the Introduction translated by Herbert F. Wright

1. Cf. A. RIVIER, Literarhistorische Uebersicht der Systeme und Theorien des Völkerrechts seit Grotius, in FRANZ VON HOLTZENDORFF, Handbuch des Völkerrechts, vol. i (Berlin, 1885), pp. 393-523. The same work forms the fourth part in HOLTZENDORFF-RIVIER, Introduction au Droit des Gens, which appeared in French (Hambourg, 1888-1889).

2. Certainly the natural law "outsiders" are not among the worst representatives of the entire group. Only three of them need be mentioned here from the century in question. Professor JAMES LORIMER of Edinburgh, for example, says, in his The Institutes of the Law of Nations (1883-1884, also published in French translation by ERNEST NYS in 1884), vol. i, p. 19: "The law of nations is the law of nature, realised in the relations of separate political communities." J. K. BLUNTSCHLI, in his famous work, Das moderne Völkerrecht der civilisirten Staaten als Rechtsbuch dargestellt (Nördlingen, 1868), by no means gives merely positive law, and the Frenchman BONFILS in his oft-printed manual under No. 40 treats the natural law of nations as valid law.

3. Cf. especially the comprehensive work of ERICH CASSIRER, Naturrecht und Völkerrecht im Lichte der Geschichte und der systematischen Philosophie (Berlin, 1919).

4. Cf. hereon the work of the German Jesuit, VICTOR CATHREIN, Recht, Naturrecht und positives Recht (2d ed., Freiburg, 1909).

5. ZOUCHE, Juris et judicii fecialis, sive juris inter gentes, et quaestionum de eodem explicatio, qua, quae ad pacem et bellum inter diversos principes aut populos spectant, ex praecipuis historico-jure-peritis exhibentur (Oxford, 1650), republished with English translation in the Classics of International Law (Washington, 1911).

6. HOBBES, Elementa philosophica de cive (Paris, 1642), "Imperium", c. xiv, § 4.

7. BARBEYRAC based his translation of the work De officio hominis et civis, dated in the preface at Berlin, March 1, 1707, upon the eleventh edition of the original, which was prepared in 1703 at Frankfort-am-Main by Professor IMMANUEL WEBER of Giessen. The fifth edition of this translation was dated in the preface by the translator himself at Groningen on August 25, 1734. A further edition appeared in 1756 at Amsterdam and Leipzig after the translator's death. The complete title runs: Les devoirs de l'homme et du citoyen, teis qu'ils sont prescrits par la loi naturelle, traduits du latin du Baron de Pufendorff, par Jean Barbeyrac. Nouvelle edition.

From a later date should also be mentioned a rather large edition in Latin, which appeared at Leyden in 1769 in two volumes totaling 1043 pages. It bears the title: S. Pufendorfii de officio hominis et civis secundum legem naturalem libri duo, cum observationibus Ev. Ottonis el Gottl. Gerh. Titii; cum supplementis et observationibus Gerschomi Carmichaelis, et annotationibus Gottl. Sam. Treneri.

8. The Codex Maximilianeus Bavaricus of 1756 was authoritative in Bavaria.

9. A conclusion to which indeed HUGO GROTIUS also adhered. Cf. Book III, ch. vii and xiv.

10. Cf. hereon the explanatory remarks, which GEORGE JELLINEK makes in his Allgemeine Staatslehre (Berlin, 1914), chapter vii, on the doctrine of the justification of the state, concerning Hobbes and the relation between his doctrine and Pufendorf's.

11. HOBBES, De cive, chapter v, § 9.

12. De cive, chapter vii, § 5.

13. Pufendorf thereby also departs from Grotius. Grotius indeed denies in principle the right of resistance, but at the same time he recognizes, for seven particular cases in so large and uncertain a number, that the application of these principles would give a much slighter and much more uncertain guaranty for the stability of the civil authority than that of the doctrine of some avowed champions of the right of resistance. Cf. hereon the interesting explanations in the excellent work of my deceased pupil, KURT WOTZENDORFF, Staatsrecht und Völkerrecht (1916), pp. 247 ff.

14. Cf. GROTIUS, De jure belli ac pacis. Book I, chapter iii, § 11.

15. Cf. STIEVEN, Europäisches Hofceremonial (Leipzig, 1715).

16. Cf. GROTIUS, De jure belli ac pacis, Book I, chapter i, § 6; Book II, chapter xiv, § 7; Book II, chapter i, § 15; chapter xix, § 7.

17. For all the points raised in this chapter, compare the more detailed presentation in PUFENDORF'S work De jure naturae et gentium libri octo, Book VIII, chapters vi and vii; furthermore Grotius, op. cit. Book I, chapter ii, § 3; Book II and Book III, passim.

18. Cf. GROTIUS, op. cit. Book II, chapters xxiii and xxiv.

19. On this question compare GROTIUS, op. cit. Book III, chapters xi-xvi.

20. GROTIUS, op. cit., Book III, chapter iii.

21. This corresponds to the practice of that time, but on this question compare also GROTIUS, op. cit. Book II, chapter xxi, § 4.

22. Hereon see GROTIUS, op. cit. Book III, chapter ii.

23. Cf. GROTIUS, op. cit. Book II, chapter xxv.

24. Cf. GROTIUS, op. cit. Book III, chapter iv, § 18.

25. GROTIUS, op. cit. Book III, chapter vi, §§ 2 ff.

26. GROTIUS, loc. cit., § 8.

27. GROTIUS, Book III, chapters ix and xvi.

28. GROTIUS, op. cit. Book III, chapter xxi, §§ 1-14.

29. Loc. cit., chapter xx.

30. Cf. GROTIUS, op. cit. Book II, chapter xv.

31. Op. cit., chapter xvi, §§ 7 and 8.

32. Cf. hereon the replies, which under the title, "Jus naturae et gentium," an inquiry for the anniversary of Hugo Grotius, appeared as a separate from Vol. 34 of the Zeitfchrift für internationales Recht, edited by Professor Dr. TH. NIEMEYER at Kiel in 1925.

33. Cf. hereon the statement of SCHÜCKING-WEHBERG, Die Satzung des Völkerbundes (2d edition, Berlin, 1924), p. 152.

Notes on Duty of Man and Citizen translated by Frank Gardner Moore

1. [Here and elsewhere where God is mentioned, Pufendorf has "O. M." = "Optimus Maximus," but it has been thought best to omit this expression in the translation.]

2. [St. Luke, xii, 48.]

3. [ULPIAN, Dig. I, 10; Inst. I, 1, pr.]

4. [Romans, ii, 15.]

5. [Cf. SENECA, Hercules Furens, 426.]

6. [JUVENAL, VI, 347.]

7. [A saying attributed to CHRYSIPPUS by CICERO, De natura deorum II, 160; cf. De finibus, V, 38.]

8. [HORACE, Epistulae, 1, 2, 27.]

9. [Sir Theodore Martin's translation of VERGIL, Æneid, VI, 610 f.]

10. [The text contains a misprint (cui for qui), corrected in other editions.]

11. [Note missing from original.]

12. [CICERO, De legibus, III, 8.]

13. [Cf. St. Luke. iii, 14.]