Abbot, E. V., on natural rights, 339-340

Adams, John, on natural rights, 54

Adams, Samuel, on natural rights, 54

Ahrens, Heinrich, on natural law, 239-240

Althusius, on distinction between king and tyrant, 16

Anglo-Americans, legal points of view of, 44-47

Appendix, on natural law phrases used by Supreme Court, 232-234

Aquinas, Thomas, on natural law, 13, 14, 278

Arbitrary acts, held void by courts, 166-172

Aristotle, on distinction between fundamental and ordinary laws, 6, 7; dualism of, 6, 7, 23

Austin, John, opposition to natural rights, 71

Bacon, Sir Francis, on law of nature, 35

Baudry-Lacantinerie, G., on natural law, 320

Becker, Carl, on anti-natural rights' doctrine, 66

Bentham, on natural law doctrines, 68

Beudant, on natural rights, 243

Bill of rights, in British North America Act, 83

Bingham, John A., draft of due process of law clause by, 144

Blackstone, Sir William, on natural law in Commentaries, 38, 39, 56, 57

Blatchford, Justice, on judicial review of rate regulation, 155

Bodin, Jean, theory of sovereignty of, 20, 21, 60

Boistel, on natural law, 242, 243

Bossuet, advocate of force theory, 61

Bracton, use of Roman concepts of natural law, 32, 33

Bradley, Justice, on judicial review of rate regulation, 156, 157, 204

Brandeis, Justice, on rule of reason, 190, 191; on fundamental rights, 194

Brewer, Justice, on protection of property rights, 134, 135; on natural justice, 176; conservative doctrines in Supreme Court decisions and, 201, 202; on duty of courts to protect property, 223

Brown, Justice, on Duguit's theories, 272

Brown, Ray A., on cases under due process clause, 184, 185

Butler, Justice, on rule of reason, 190

Canon law, natural law in, 13

Cardozo, Benjamin N., on natural law theories, 70; on use of natural law, 326; on modern law of nature, 329, 330

Carlyle, R. W. and A. J., on concept of jus naturale, 11, 13

Cathrein, Victor, on natural law, 286-288

Charmont, Joseph, on natural law, 258-260

Chase, Justice Salmon P., on immutable fundamental rights, 174

Chase, Justice Samuel, higher law ideas, 86, 87, 110, 138

Cicero, on law of nature, 9, 10

Clifford, Justice, on legislative supremacy, 153, 154

Coke, Sir Edward, on doctrine of superior principles of right and justice, 33, 56, 57; opinion in Bonham's Case, 33-35; on Magna Carta as fundamental law, 37, 38; on due process of law, 107

Cole, Justice, on judicial review, 126

Collins, Charles W., cases under Fourteenth Amendment, 183

Comte, Auguste, on natural rights, 69

Conservatism, in Supreme Court decisions, 137-139

Constant, Benjamin, on limitations upon sovereignty, 238, 239

Constitutions, limits on power to amend, 336-342

Cooley, Thomas M., on meaning of due process of law, 116, 117; on implied limitations on legislatures, 116n, 138; Constitutional Limitations cited, 116, 117, 118, 119; Law of Taxation cited, 117, 129; on superior law principles, 118, 119; on public purpose as principle in taxation, 127-130; on public purpose as requirement for exercise of eminent domain, 133; on bills of rights, 171; on limits on amending power, 337

Corwin, Edward S., on judicial review in New York, 205, 206

Dalloz, summary of natural rights in, 240, 241

Declaration of Independence, natural rights' doctrine in, 54; Constitution and, 201

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, 63-65

Demogue, R., on natural law, 260

Dewey, John, on immutable rules, 222, 223

Dicey, A. V., on judicial legislation, 224, 225; on supremacy of law, 226

Dickinson, Thomas, on recognition of rights by charters, 54, 55

Digest and Institutes, natural law in, 10, 11

Dillon, John F., on implied limits on legislatures, 125-127, 138; on necessity of checks upon majority, 151

Due process of law, different meanings of, 104-107; in English law, 104, 105; in Massachusetts constitution, 105; in Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments, 106; applied by state justices, 108-116; concepts involved in, 113, 114; economic conditions and, 119-122; reactionary tendencies and, 122-139; Fourteenth Amendment and, 143-165; as applied to regulation of public utilities, 154-159; general rule of reason and, 166-195; fundamental rights and, 172-177; police regulations and, 177-182; extension of meaning of, 182, 185 Duguit, Léon, on theories of natural law, 260-273

Ehrlich, Eugen, on natural law, 248

Eminent domain, public purpose limitation for, 131-134; limitations on exercise of, in foreign countries, 135, 136

Esmein, M., on natural rights, 335

Federalists, the, aims of, 96, 97; on limiting legislative activities, 97-99

Field, Justice, on interpretation of Fourteenth Amendment, 146, 148; on fundamental rights, 160, 161; on inalienable rights, 174; conservative doctrines in Supreme Court decisions and, 199, 200.

Fourteenth Amendment, due process of law and, 143-165; restricted interpretation of, 145-149; change in interpretation of, due to economic and political pressure, 149-154; summary of decisions under, for 1924, 234

French parlements, guardians of fundamental laws, 62, 63

Fundamental law, English doctrines of, 29-39

Fundamental rights, acts contravening, are void, 172-177

Gaius, on natural law, 10

Gavet, Gaston, on natural rights, 271

Geny, Francois, on Stammler's theories, 250; on natural law, 288-293

Gibson, Justice, on reasoning of Marshall, 81, 82

Gierke, Otto, on higher law theories, 244-246

Gray. Justice, on judicial review of rate regulation, 155

Grotius, Hugo, doctrines of natural law of, 18, 19; on state of nature, 51, 52; doctrines of, cited, 92

Guillemon, Pierre, on higher laws, 270- 271

Guizot, F. P., on higher law, 59

Haldane, Lord, on relation of moral ideas to law, 313, 314

Harlan, Justice, on requirement for compensation in eminent domain proceedings, 133, 134; conservative doctrines in Supreme Court decisions and, 200, 201

Hauriou, M., on superior law doctrines, 273, 274

Hegel, G. W. F., on natural rights, 69; theories of law of, 237, 238

Henry, Patrick, on natural rights, 54

Higher law theories, in mediaeval thought, 14, 15; in England, 29-48; as basis for review of legislative acts by courts, 80-85; in recent Supreme Court decisions, 185-193; limits on state sovereignty and, 331-336

Higher laws, as guide to legislators, 323-331

Hobbes, Thomas, distinction between ius naturale and lex naturalis, 21

Holdsworth, William E., on Magna Carta, 30; on equity and law of reason, 32; on political functions exercised by courts, 33; on Coke's dicta in Bonham's Case, 35; on supremacy of parliament, 35, 37, 38

Holland, J. G., on supremacy of parliament, 34n, 37, 38

Holmes, Justice, on conservative attitude of lawyers, 152; on due process of law, 171; dissent in Minimum Wage Case, 187; on legislative supremacy, 192

Hosmer, Chief Justice, on protecting vested rights, 94, 95; on implied limits on legislatures, 110

Hough, Justice, on litigation under due process of law, 153, 184

Houques-Fouciade, M., on natural law, 320

Ihering, Rudolf von, on higher law philosophy, 246, 247

Inalienable rights, American theories of, 52-56

International law, natural law theories in, 294-302

Isadore of Seville, on natural law, 12, 13

Jefferson, Thomas, use of natural rights' doctrine, 54, 57; natural rights' theories of, discredited, 65

Jenks, Edward, on Magna Carta, 30

John of Salisbury, on distinction between king and tyrant, 16

Johnson, Justice, on higher law, 90, 91; on due process of law, 116, 117

Judicial review of legislation, rate regulation and, 154-160; conservative doctrines and, 198-210; in New York, 205, 206; in Massachusetts, 205, 206

Kant, Immanuel, theories of law of, 237, 238

Kent, Chancellor, on implied limitations on legislatures, 92-94; on public purpose requirement for eminent domain, 131

Kohler, Joseph, on natural law, 247

Krabbe, H., higher law doctrines of, 274-277

Krause, F., on natural law, 239

Laissez faire theories, checks on governmental powers and, 118; individualism and, 121, 122; liberty of contract and, 162; arbitrary wage payment interfered with economic, 186; doctrine of liberty of contract and, 189; Justice Peckham's defense of, 203

Lambert, Edouard, on judicial review in United States, 207, 208

Laski, Harold J., on natural rights, 334, 335

Laurent, on law of nature, 240, 241

Le Fur, Louis, on natural law, 297-300

Legislative supremacy, in state governments, 108, 109

Legislatures, purpose of implied limits on, 95-97

Liberty of contract, as phase of due process of law, 160-164

Lincoln, Abraham, on natural rights, 102

Locke, John, on law of nature, 22, 23; on arbitrary acts of government, 166

McIlwain, C. H., on fundamental laws in England, 29, 31

McKechnie, William S., on Magna Carta, 30, 37

Magna Carta, referred to as fundamental and immutable, 29, 30; law interpreted according to maxims of, 85; "law of land" phrase in, 104, 105;

Fourteenth Amendment called American, 143

Maitland, F. W., on law of nature in development of equity, 32n

Marshall, John, on judicial review, 81, 82; conservative legal theories of, 196, 197

Mason, Justice, on natural rights, 114, 115

Michel, Henri, on natural rights, 243

Middle Ages, natural law in, 12-17

Miller, Justice, on implied limitations on legislatures, 130, 138, 153; on interpretation of Fourteenth Amendment, 147; on immutable fundamental rights, 174

Moody, Justice, on inalienable rights, 176

Mott, Rodney L., on due process of law, 107n, 108n

Natural law, Graeco-Roman concepts of, 4-12, 24-27; German current views on, 246-251; metaphysical and theological types of, 278-293; ethical concepts and, 310-316; Dean Pound on types of, 311, 315; philosophical standards and, 316-323

Natural law concepts, denial of the application of, 75-77

Natural law ideas, types of, in ancient and mediaeval times, 24-27; in English law, 43, 44; American, 57-59, 216-219

Natural law theories, ancient and mediaeval, 3-27; in English judicial decisions, 39-43; in relation to natural rights, 49-52; American, 52-59; French, 59-65; in American law, 77-80; return to, 99-103; due process of law and, 104-139; economic and legal bases for, 117-122; judicial review of legislative acts and, 196-234; purpose of, in American constitutional law, 210-216; American political and legal conservatism and, 210-232; continuance of, in Europe, 237-244; German doctrine of a Rechtsstaat and, 244-251, European, 302-306; objectives in, 309-336; main types of, 345-349

Natural rights, decline of theories of, 65-72; ideas on, in colonial times, 78-80

Nesbitt, James L., on due process of law, 180-181

Otis, James, on natural rights, 54

Paine, Thomas, on natural rights, 54, 57

Paterson, Justice, on natural rights, 89

Peckham, Justice, on rule of reason, 178; conservative doctrines of, in Supreme Court decisions, 202, 203

Permanent Court of International Justice, general principles of law and, 324, 325

Physiocrats, theories of natural rights of, 60, 61

Pike, L. O., on Magna Carta, 30

Plucknett, Theodore, F. T., on English fundamental ideas, 31

Police regulations, reasonableness of, 177-182

Pollock, Sir Frederick, on supremacy of parliament, 34n, 37, 38; on natural law doctrines in English law, 39-41; on law of nature, 301, 330

Pound, Roscoe, on metaphysical jurists, 279; on types of natural law, 311, 315

Powell, Thomas Reed, on interpretation

Pufendorf, Samuel, on law of nature, 22; on state of nature, 51, 52; doctrines of, cited, 92

Quesnay, on higher law, 60

Radbruch, Gustav, on natural law, 296

Ranke, on natural rights, 69

Reasonableness, standards of, for valid customs, 15; Justice Stone on doctrines of, in Anti-Trust Cases, 194, 195; as standard in judicial review of legislation. 166-195; use of in recent Supreme Court decisions, 232-234

Rechtsstaat, German doctrine of, 244-246

Reformation, theories of natural law and, 17-24

Renan, on natural rights, 69

Riddell, Justice, on eminent domain proceedings in Canada, 136

Roman praetors, ideas of natural justice of, 7, 8

Roosevelt, Theodore, on judicial law-making, 327

Root, Elihu, on limitations on amending power, 339

Rule of reason, due process of law and, 166-195; in recent Supreme Court decisions, 232-234

Saleilles, Raymond, on natural law, 252-258; on Duguit's theories, 272

Salmond, John W., on differences between English and Continental points of view, 46, 47; on natural law, 76

Sanford, Justice, on interpretation of Fourteenth Amendment, 193

Savigny, on natural rights, 69, 70

Schiffer, Eugen, on natural law, 296, 297

Seneca, on doctrine of equality, 19, 55

Social compact theory, 86, 87

Social-Utilitarians, repudiation of natural rights' theory by, 68

Sophists, legal theories of, 5, 6

Sophocles, idea of higher laws of, 5

Sovereignty, in Greek thought, 7; higher law theories and limits on, 331- 336

Stammler, Rudolf, on natural law, 248-250

Stoics, concepts of natural law of, 7-10

Stone, Justice, on doctrine of reasonableness in Anti-Trust Cases, 194-195

Story, Justice, on implied limitations on legislatures, 94, 95, 173; conservative legal theories and, 196, 197; on limits on amending power, 337

Strong, Justice, on interpretation of Fourteenth Amendment, 148

Super-constitution, created by courts, 227

Sutherland, Justice, on meaning of due process of law, 185, 186, 192

Taft, Chief Justice, on meaning of due process of law, 170; dissent in Minimum Wage Case, 186

Thayer, James Bradley, on judicial review, 227-229

Troeltsch, Ernst, on natural law, 288

Ulpian, on types of natural law, 10, 11

Van Buren, Martin, on Federalist policies, 96

Vattel, on law of nature, 50-52

Vecchio, Georgio del, on natural law, 279-286

Vested rights, limits on legislatures to protect, 88-95; Marshall on preserving, 90, 91; Kent on preserving, 92-94; Story on preserving, 94, 95; Hosmer on preserving, 94, 95; New York courts, on preserving, 99-101

Vinogradoff, Sir Paul, on interpretation of Magna Carta, 30; on modern revival of natural law, 317-319; on natural rights, 335

Waite, Chief Justice, on judicial review of rate regulation, 155 of due process of law, 215, 216

Washington, Justice, on fundamental rights, 173

Webster, Daniel, on due process of law, 112, 116; conservative legal theories and, 106, 197

William of Ockham, classification of natural law by, 17

Wilson, James, on law of nature, 55

Wohlgemuth, M., on higher laws, 269, 270

Wolff, Frederick von, on natural law, 50; on state of nature, 51, 52

Wright, B. F., on American theory of natural rights, 67, 68

Zane, John M., on natural law school, 77

Zeno, on natural law, 8, 9

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