English Bill of Rights
December 16, 1689
Whereas the late King James the Second, by the assistance of divers
evil counsellors, judges, and ministers employed by him, did endeavour to
subvert and extirpate the protestant religion, and the laws and liberties of
1. By assuming and exercising a power of dispensing with and suspending of
laws, and the execution of laws, without consent of parliament.
2. By committing and prosecuting divers worthy prelates, for humbly
petitioning to be excused from concurring to the said assumed power.
3. By issuing and causing to be executed a commission under the great seal
for erecting a court called, The court of commissioners for ecclesiastical
4. By levying money for and to the use of the crown, by pretence of
prerogative, for other time, and in other manner, than the same was granted by
5. By raising and keeping a standing army within this kingdom in time of
peace, without consent of parliament, and quartering soldiers contrary to law.
6. By causing several good subjects, being protestants, to be disarmed, at
the same time when papists were both armed and employed, contrary to law.
7. By violating the freedom of election of members to serve in parliament.
8. By prosecutions in the court of King's bench, for matters and causes
cognizable only in parliament; and by divers other arbitrary and illegal
9. And whereas of late years, partial, corrupt, and unqualified persons have
been returned and served on juries in trials, and particularly divers jurors in
trials for high treason, which were not freeholders.
10. And excessive bail hath been required of persons committed in criminal
cases, to elude the benefit of the laws made for the liberty of the subjects.
11. And excessive fines have been imposed; and illegal and cruel punishments
have been inflicted.
12. And several grants and promises made of fines and forfeitures, before
any conviction or judgment against the persons, upon whom the same were to be
All which are utterly and directly contrary to the known laws and statutes,
and freedom of this realm.
And whereas the said late king James the Second having abdicated the
government, and the throne being thereby vacant ... the said lords spiritual
and temporal, and commons ... do in the first place (as their ancestors in like
case have usually done) for the vindicating and asserting their ancient rights
and liberties, declare;
1. That the pretended power of suspending of laws, or the execution of laws,
by regal authority, without consent of parliament, is illegal.
2. That the pretended power of dispensing with laws, or the execution of
laws, by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is
3. That the commission for erecting the late court of commissioners for
ecclesiastical causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature are
illegal and pernicious.
4. That levying money for or to the use of the crown, by pretence of
prerogative, without grant of parliament, for longer time, or in other manner
than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal.
5. That it is the right of the subjects to petition the King, and all
committments [sic] and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal.
6. That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of
peace, unless it be with consent of parliament, is against law.
7. That the subjects which are protestants, may have arms for their defence
suitable to their conditions, and as allowed by law.
8. That election of members of parliament ought to be free.
9. That the freedom of speech, and debates or proceedings in parliament,
ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of
10. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines
imposed; nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
11. That jurors ought to be duly impanelled and returned, and jurors which
pass upon men in trials for high treason ought to be freeholders.
12. That all grants and promises of fines and forfeitures of particular
persons before conviction, are illegal and void.
13. And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending,
strengthening, and preserving of the laws, parliaments ought to be held
And they do claim, demand, and insist upon all and singular the premisses,
as their undoubted rights and liberties; and that no declarations, judgments,
doings or proceedings, to the prejudice of the people in any of the said
premisses, ought in any wise to be drawn hereafter into consequence or example.
. . .
VI. Now in pursuance of the premisses, the said lords spiritual and
temporal, and commons, in parliament assembled, for the ratifying, confirming
and establishing the said declaration, and the articles, clauses, matters, and
things therein contained, by the force of a law made in due form by authority
of parliament, do pray that it may be declared and enacted, That all and
singular the rights and liberties asserted and claimed in the said declaration,
are the true, ancient, and indubitable rights and liberties of the people of
this kingdom, and so shall be esteemed, allowed, adjudged, deemed, and taken to
be, and that all and every the particulars aforesaid shall be firmly and
strictly holden and observed, as they are expressed in the said declaration;
and all officers and ministers whatsoever shall serve their Majesties and their
successors according to the same in all times to come.
. . .
XI. All which their Majesties are contented and pleased shall be declared,
enacted, and established by authority of this present parliament, and shall
stand, remain, and be the law of this realm for ever; and the same are by their
said Majesties, by and with the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and
temporal, and commons, in parliament assembled, and by the authority of the
same, declared, enacted, and established accordingly.
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