This completes the discussion of political prudence as a rule and norm employed in the administration of the commonwealth and entrusted imperium. We turn now to the types of administration. There are two types: one is universal, and the other particular.[1] The former is public administration, and the latter private. In the former the supreme magistrate is concerned with the whole body of the commonwealth, and in the latter with the members and parts of it.

Universal administration is the process by which the public functions and goods in the entire territory of the realm, commonwealth, and universal association are handled, directed, and diligently managed for the utility and welfare of the total commonwealth.[2] This universal administration is twofold. One aspect of it pertains to public functions, and the other to public things.[3] The administration of the public functions of the realm is either ecclesiastical or secular.[4] John Piscator says that what is just is known from the second table, and ruling in fear of God is understood according to the first.[5] Both are of concern to the magistrate, as can be demonstrated by examples of pious kings, namely, of David, Solomon, and others who followed them.[6]

Ecclesiastical functions are the means whereby the kingdom of God (regnum Dei) is introduced, promoted, cared for, and conserved in the commonwealth or political realm.[7] Ecclesiastical administration is the process by which these ecclesiastical functions are administered according to what is prescribed in the Word of God. This ecclesiastical administration by the supreme magistrate consists in his inspection, defence, care, and direction of ecclesiastical matters. But the execution and administration of ecclesiastical offices belong to the clergy (personae ecclesiasticae).... There is therefore a twofold administration of ecclesiastical matters. One part pertains to the magistrate, and the other to the clergy. Each directs and obeys the other, and each helps the other in the distinct administration entrusted to it, according to the example of Moses and Aaron. The administration of the supreme magistrate directs the clergy as long as he enjoins them to perform the parts of their office according to the Word of God, and orders and arranges for other things that are necessary for establishing, conserving, and transmitting to posterity the true worship of God.[8] On the other hand, the supreme magistrate is subject to the administration and power of the clergy with respect to censures, admonitions, and whatever concerns eternal life and salvation.[9] In the administration of ecclesiastical matters the magistrate does nothing without the counsel and consent of the clergy based on the Word of God.

This administration is imposed upon the magistrate by the mandate of God, as we have said, and is supported by examples of pious men and by arguments from reason.... So Moses began his magistracy with this administration, which he later confirmed by a paschal lamb.[10] Gideon began his with the erection of an altar.[11] David brought the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem at the beginning of his reign.[12] Joash restored the house of the Lord at the beginning of his administration,[13] as did Hezekiah and Josiah.[14] And every supreme magistrate should admonish his subjects to the worship of God....[15]

The arguments from reason over and beyond the mandate of God and the examples given are weighty and significant. For a sound worship and fear of God in the commonwealth is the cause, origin, and fountain of private and public happiness. On the other hand, the contempt of God, and the neglect of divine worship, are the causes of all evil and misfortune. Moreover, the Christian religion not only subordinates the bodies and goods of pious subjects to the magistrate, but even lays their souls and consciences under obligation to him, and shapes them to obedience. It nourishes peace and concord, disapproves all scandals, and makes men pious and just. For this reason, even though the Christians in the early church suffered the gravest persecutions, they nevertheless did not forsake or oppose their magistrate, but are known to have devoted themselves constantly to peace. That the profession and practice of orthodox religion are the cause of all public and private happiness is evident from the fact that piety holds the promise of benediction that supporters of it will receive in this life and the next.... Furthermore, the advantages that derive to the entire commonwealth from these subjects who are worshippers of God — and, on the other hand, the evils and perils into which the commonwealth is precipitated by the ungodly — ought to lead the magistrate to a love and zeal for ecclesiastical administration. Even an evil commonwealth is supported and sustained by the pious. The reason is that because of their presence it suffers less from the just wrath of God, and thus avoids punishments that it deserves.... Consequently, the magistrate before anything else, and immediately from the beginning of his administration, should plant and nourish the Christian religion as the foundation of his imperium. If he does this, all the virtues will flourish among his subjects, and he will be prospered in his actions....

This ecclesiastical administration is performed chiefly through two duties. The first is the introduction of orthodox religious doctrine and practice in the realm. The other is the conservation, defence, and transmission to posterity of this doctrine and practice. The former duty is employed in seeing that God is rightly known and worshipped, and the latter that the true understanding or comprehension of God thrives throughout the realm, and the right worship of God maintained freely and publicly by each and all in the whole realm, without any fear or peril. By these two duties of the magistrate, the kingdom of God is raised up and preserved among men in this political society.

By a religious covenant (pactum religiosum) the magistrate, together with the members of the realm commonly and solemnly consenting in councils of the realm, promise to God the performance of this twofold duty. They agree assiduously to perform this service by which God may be constantly and truly known and worshipped by each and all in the entire realm. And in this agreement they recognize their realm to be under God, and they promise to him fidelity and obedience as subjects and vassals. 'For the earth and the fulness thereof are God's.'[16] 'He is the Lord of lords, and the King of kings.'[17] He is the proprietory lord of all creatures, and concedes their administration to him whom he wills. But he does not thereby lose his own authority (jus), as we have said concerning the ephors.

Examples of this religious covenant are readily to be found. 'You have made a promise to Jehovah this day that he will be your God, that you will walk in his ways, that you will observe his statutes, his precepts, and his judgments, and will give heed to his voice. Jehovah has made a promise to you this day that you will be a special people to him, as he said to you, provided you observe all his precepts, and that he will lift you up above all peoples that he has made, with praise, renown, and glory, and that you will be a holy people to Jehovah your God, as he has spoken.'[18] At the present time, as well, kings are bound by agreements to care for the approved religion, and to remove unapproved religion.[19]

This religious covenant may be confirmed by the oath of the promisers — the people and supreme magistrate — in which they swear that they will devote themselves to those things that pertain to the conservation of the church and the kingdom of God.[20] The debtors in this religious covenant are those who make the promise, or the supreme magistrate of the realm and its ephors together with the entire people. The creditor is God to whom the promise is made. The debtors jointly obligate themselves by indicating that they intend to render to God the things that are his, namely, the cultivation of the true knowledge and pious worship of him in the realm according to the Word of God, not according to the pleasure or mandate of men.... The supreme magistrate of the realm and the ephors representing the people are the debtors in such a manner that the fulfillment of their promise can be entirely and continuously demanded of both magistrate and ephors as if each were the principal obligant.[21] For God does not will that the church, or the responsibility for acknowledging and worshipping him, be committed to one person alone, but to the entire people represented by its ministers, ephors, and supreme magistrate. These administrators represent the people as if they corporately sustain the church as one person, and yet as if anyone from among them were obligated for the entire responsibility....[22]

God makes a promise to the magistrate and people in this religious covenant concerning those who perform these things, as well as a threat to those who neglect or violate this compact (fedus). He promises to those who perform them that he will be to them a benevolent God and a merciful protector. He threatens those who disobey and violate this compact that he will be a just and severe exactor of punishments....

God is the vindicator of this covenant when it is violated by the magistrate or by the ephors representing the people. One debtor is held responsible for the fault of the other, and shares his sins if he does not hold the violator of this covenant to his duty, and resist and impede him so far as he is able. 'He will cast Israel down because of the sins of Jeroboam.'[23] For this reason the ephors are expected to remind a deviating magistrate of his duty, and to resist him. Therefore, if the ephors do not do this, but by remaining silent, defaulting, dissembling, permitting, or submitting they do not obstruct the violation of this covenant by the supreme magistrate, they are deservedly punished by God for this fault and surrender, as many examples indicate....[24]

William Barclay disagrees with the things we have said about this covenant and compact.[25] He asserts that such a compact was employed among the Jews in a time of interregnum and in a democratic state of affairs, and accepts it only in this sense. But he greatly errs in this. For the texts prove most conclusively that such a compact also occurred among prince and people under the monarchy.[26] And they demonstrate that the nature and purpose of this compact is such that it is useful and necessary in any type of commonwealth.

Concerning this compact entered into by the king and people with God, Barclay furthermore adds that he thinks any party whatever can individually uphold it by not allowing itself to be led away from true religion. And this the people can do.[27] He says this compact in itself grants no right and imperium, neither to the people over the king, nor to the king over the people. It merely makes both debtors to God alone. Barclay says something important here, and omits something else.[28] For no one can doubt that such a compact or covenant constitutes a right and obligation both to God and between the promising debtors, namely, between the people and the king. What is at stake in this obligation is not only the public practice of orthodox religion and the honest worship of God, but also the second table of the Decalogue, of the correct and honest administration of justice. This is to say, both tables are involved.[29]

I concede to Barclay that in a case in which two debtors jointly promise to do something, if one fulfills what is promised, the other is released from it. Therefore, when either the king or the people has been afflicted with punishment by God because of their crime and transgression against the agreed compact, the other shall be released from it. But this rule — in which one debtor who fulfills an obligation releases the other debtor — permits an exception in the case in which a debtor fulfills not the entire obligation, but only his own part of it. Here one of the debtors who suffers the penalties of God cannot thereby discharge the entire obligation....

Let us now follow through with the two duties of ecclesiastical administration that we have mentioned. The first duty, which is the introduction of the doctrine and practice of orthodox religion in the realm, consists of the establishment of a sacred ministry and of schools. A sacred ministry is the public responsibility entrusted to chosen ministers for teaching the true knowledge of God and for conducting sincere worship of him. It is called by the Apostle Paul the ministry of reconciliation, the preaching of reconciliation, the ambassadorship of Christ, and the administration of the Word.[30]

In constituting this ministry, the first office of the supreme magistrate is to set forth by public edicts a system of penalties concerning the true acknowledgement and worship of God according to sacred scripture, and to promulgate, at whatever time seems best to him, penal decrees for violators of these edicts throughout the entire realm and the provinces thereof, according to the example of pious kings. Secondly, the magistrate should legally validate orthodox canons of faith, or what are called the solemn confession and formula of true religion. These canons pertain to church doctrine and administration, that is, to the performance of ecclesiastical ceremonies and offices according to the norm of sacred writings.... The third responsibility that falls to the magistrate is to constitute regular ecclesiastical jurisdictions, presbyteries, synods, and consistories, and to legislate through them concerning the call, examination, and ordination of bishops and pastors, and their direction, judgment, and removal from office.... The fourth function of the magistrate is to provide that the individual ephors and provincial heads of the realm undertake the local responsibility for this ministry in their provinces. In each district of his province, the provincial head should constitute a presbytery by the election and consent of the church, and confirm it by his own authority. This presbytery is a senate drawn from the ministers of the church and from other pious, holy, upright, and prudent men elected by the people to guide the church, to conserve it, and to build it up in Christ.[31] The fifth office of the magistrate is to see that the ministers of the church are legitimately — inwardly and outwardly — called, elected, and confirmed, and that those so called put forth, teach, and explain the doctrine of the law and the gospel. They should do this sincerely, truly, and fully from the Word of God, both in public and in private, in an orderly fashion, and in a manner that can be understood by the common people. In connection with this fifth office, he shall also provide that the ministers rightly administer and dispense the sacraments or tokens of faith; that in their presbytery they offer prayers, good counsel, and admonitions; that they direct its actions by proposing issues to be discussed, by gathering opinions on these issues, and by carrying through with matters of special importance; and that they, together with other presbyters, rightly exercise church discipline, and do anything else that has been assigned to the collegium of presbyters. From these things it is apparent that the supreme magistrate has a responsibility to judge concerning the knowledge, discernment, direction, definition, and promulgation of the doctrine of faith, that he exercises this responsibility on the basis of sacred scripture, and that he commands bishops in keeping with these scriptures. So Constantine undertook to judge the Arian controversy. Whence it is evident that clergymen have been subjected to the power of kings, except in those matters that are proper to them. These matters are the preaching of the Word and the administration of the sacraments, in which they are subject to God and the church. But to the extent that they are citizens they are subject, together with their families and goods, to the civil power....[32]

The establishment of schools is the means by which public schools and laboratories of piety and the liberal arts are set up and made accessible in all provinces by the authority and command of the supreme magistrate of the realm. For the school is the laboratory of good and pious citizens, and the seedbed of honourable arts and customs. Indeed, it is the armoury of the church and commonwealth. Arms of every kind are produced in it not only for defending the true and sincere worship of God against heretics, but also for defending and conserving the welfare and soundness of the commonwealth. A school is indeed the only means by which the pure and uncorrupted knowledge and worship of God is conserved and transmitted to posterity. For study opens the eyes of the mind, and informs and sharpens the judgment....

On the one hand, private, village, town, ordinary, and common schools are to be established and made available. And, on the other hand, so are public academies in which prizes for the learned and for those fitted for the direction of church and commonwealth are determined and conferred. Each ephor establishes schools of the first kind in the province entrusted to him. The supreme magistrate institutes schools of the second kind, namely academies, and confirms them by his own authority....

The other duty of the supreme magistrate in ecclesiastical administration consists of the conservation and defence of the church, of public worship, and of schools.... This responsibility encompasses two parts. The first is the conservation of the church, of divine worship, and of schools. The other is their defence against enemies, persecutors, and disturbers.

The conservation of religion and divine worship is the process by which the purity of heavenly doctrine and the orthodox consensus are maintained and transmitted to posterity. This is to be attended to by the magistrate by two means. First, he will announce and hold ecclesiastical assemblies and visitations in every province of the realm, and if necessary in the realm itself. They are composed of faithful and pious ministers of the church of the realm. Through these assemblies and visitations the pastors and governors of the church are held to their duty, and any controversies concerning religion and defects in church management are recognized, corrected, and removed. Secondly, he will distribute suitable rewards to pious worshippers of God....

In these assemblies the clergy ought to examine and discern from the Word of God whether doctrine is sound and life corresponds to it, whether divine worship is uncorrupted and the sacraments rightly administered, whether ecclesiastical discipline prospers, whether schools are well constituted, whether church properties are correctly managed, whether false teachers and corrupters are dealt with, whether false doctrines circulate, whether the diaconate to the poor is rightly handled, and whether there is anything in the house of God that the magistrate should make his responsibility. These assemblies shall also provide that useful books on orthodox religion are produced, printed, published, and sold in the realm, and likewise that distinguished and excellent men useful to the church and commonwealth are attracted to the realm or province. The decrees of these assemblies are ordered by the supreme magistrate to be made effective in the entire realm and in the provinces thereof.

Corresponding to these assemblies are visitations of the churches. Some of these visitations are special and domestic. They are conducted by the minister of the local church joined by the senior presbyter in the area. Others are general. These are conducted in church assemblies by an inspector[33] of the church joined by a local political official. Some general visitations are conducted in provincial synods by several designated inspectors and some political counsellors of the magistrate. In these visitations the examination, inquiry, investigation, and exploration of doctrine and life occur. Doctrine is examined according to the articles of faith and the catechism, and life according to the established precepts of the Decalogue. An inquiry also occurs in these visitations concerning the state of the church and schools, the management of church properties, and the life and doctrine of the ministers of the church and of those for whom the ministers are responsible. The visitation also investigates the maintenance of church ministers and their families and the training of their children, lest the ministers be in want or constrained because of family privation to practice such a way of life that their ecclesiastical vocation is upset, impeded, or disrespected, or lest after their death their wives, children, and families are driven unavoidably to charity and live in humilation.[34] Furthermore, the magistrate shall provide not only that these ecclesiastical ministers conducting the visitation perform their office well, but also that, if necessary, political ministers help them in it. For this reason, he shall order that ecclesiastical and political ministers extend mutual services to each other, and confer and communicate aid and counsel, as Moses and Aaron did.[35] But the magistrate should not permit political ministers to impede or disrupt ecclesiastical ministers....

Then the magistrate shall decree and promulgate laws concerning the preaching of sound doctrine; the right administration of the sacraments; the arrangement for adiaphorous matters according to decorum and good order; the announcement and convocation of catechetical classes, schools, and synods; the punishment or dismissal of mischievous or useless ministers of the church; discipline of the church; the calling of pastors; the diaconate to the poor; the management of church properties; and weddings and funerals. And if there are other things necessary for ecclesiastical administration that he decrees by his regulations, he should prescribe each and every one of them according to the sure reason and order of the Word of God. But the political magistrate should be very careful in this activity not to apply his own hands to these matters, but commit and entrust them to the clergy. He should concern himself only that the external actions of men conform to laws. And all men, even clergymen, are to comply obediently with these laws.

The distribution of suitable rewards accomplishes much by engendering a love and zeal for religion in the people. When the pious worshippers of God are held in good repute, esteem, and honour, they are advanced to public offices and responsibilities for which they are equal and fitted. By this means the piety of the other life receives and enjoys the benediction and benefits of this life....

We now turn to the defence and protection of orthodox religion and divine worship, of which there are two headings. The first is the reformation of the church, and the other is the removal and abolition of any impediments. There is no doubt that the correction and reformation of the church from all error, heresy, idolatry, schism, and corruption pertains to the magistrate....[36]

The administrator ought to establish and permit only one religion in his realm, and that the true one. He shall expel all atheists, and all impious and profane men who are obstinate and incurable. There is no doubt, however, that a magistrate can admit impious and profane men in whom there is hope of correction to sound and pure worship, or to those external means by which God wills to bring men to the true religion.[37] But he should by no means permit atheism, epicureanism, libertinism — that is, manifest impiety and profanity — in the realm.

I also consider that a pious magistrate can in good conscience permit Jews to live in his dominion and territory, and to dwell and engage in business with the faithful.[38] But I do not think that magistrates should permit Jews to have synagogues. However, the theologians Peter Martyr and Jerome Zanchius conclude that even this can be done if the Jews are content to read the Bible and offer prayers in them, and not to blaspheme Christ or the church.[39] Their reason is that Christ and the apostles are known to have gone into synagogues and to have conferred with the Jews. In the civil life of Jews with inhabitants, the most prudent and pious consider that the following precautions ought to be observed: (1) that the faithful not enter into wedlock with Jews, and (2) that they not share in their religion or their rites, cultivate too close friendship with them, or live familiarly with them. The Jews should have separate quarters, as is the case in Frankfurt, and bear insignia or marks by which they are easily recognized by all....

The theologians determine how far it is permitted to have private contacts with infidels, atheists, impious men, or persons of different religions by distinguishing between the learned, the faithful, the uneducated, and the weak, and the purposes for which the contacts are to be held.[40]

The same can be said about papists born in the territory of the magistrate or having homes there. The magistrate can in good conscience permit them to live within the boundaries of the realm if the pious do not partake of their superstitions, live familiarly with them, or contract marriages with them. Furthermore, the magistrate ought not to permit them temples for the practice of their idolatrous worship.

Distinctions should be made concerning heretics in a well-constituted imperium. For there are some heresies that tear up the foundation of faith, such as Arianism and the like. But there are others that, although they err in certain articles of faith, do not overthrow the foundation, such as the Novatian and similar heresies. Heretics of the first sort should be severely attended to by the magistrate with exile, prison, or the sword. This is in order that they cannot have fellowship or intercourse with the faithful, impart their disease to others, or infect, ruin, or corrupt them. The magistrate should command men by public interdicts to abstain from fellowship with them.

Heretics of the second sort are to be excommunicated if, having been convicted of heresies and admonished by the church, they nevertheless persist in them. But those who uphold some error or doctrine that has not yet been condemned as manifest heresy are not for this reason to be driven from the church, nor the sacred services to be prohibited to them or social intercourse forbidden with them.[41] The magistrate can even order by published edicts that the orthodox are not to ridicule or heap abuse upon those whose error does not reach to the foundations of doctrine, and that instead of publicly judging them the orthodox are rather to cultivate friendship among them until the matter is legitimately discussed and decided in a free synod....

A magistrate in whose realm the true worship of God does not thrive should take care that he not claim imperium over that area of the faith and religion of men that exist only in the soul and conscience. God alone has imperium in this area. To him alone the secrets and intimate recesses of the heart are known. And he administers his kingdom, which is not of this world, through his ministers of the Word. For this reason, faith is said to be a gift of God, not of Caesar. It is not subject to the will, nor can it be coerced. If in religion the soul has once been destroyed, nothing henceforth remains, as Lactantius says. We are not able to command religion because no one is required to believe against his will. Faith must be persuaded, not commanded, and taught, not ordered. Christ said to his disciples who were willing to destroy the Samaritans, 'Are you ignorant of whose spirit you are sons?'[42] The emperor Constantine said that to inflict bodily punishments upon men whose minds have been captured is senseless and stupid to the extreme.[43]

Those who err in religion are therefore to be ruled not by external force or by corporal arms, but by the sword of the spirit, that is, by the Word and spiritual arms through which God is able to lead them to himself. They are to be entrusted to ministers of the Word of God for care and instruction.[44] If they cannot be persuaded by the Word of God, how much less can they be coerced by the threats or punishments of the magistrate to think or believe what he or some other person believes. Therefore, the magistrate should leave this matter to God, attribute to him the things that are his — who alone impels, leads, and changes hearts — and reserve to himself what God has given him, namely, imperium over bodies. He is forbidden in his administration to impose a penalty over the thoughts of men. Heretics, so far as they are delinquent in external actions, are to be punished just as any other subjects, even the otherwise pious. But if the magistrate invades the imperium of God, exceeds the limits of his jurisdiction, and arrogates to himself imperium over the consciences of men, he shall not do this evil with impunity. For because of this action, seditions and tumults, which persecution is want to cause, will arise in his realm. Thus, in the time of the Maccabees long wars and tumults arose because of persecutions. When the Scribes and Pharisees persecuted the doctrine of Christ, disorders were produced that had not existed before. When Paul was teaching at Ephesus, Demetrius stirred up sedition because of the persecution of Paul. Similarly, the Jews who persecuted Paul in the temple stirred up tumults. Today in France, Belgium, Hungary, Poland, and other realms persecution causes disorders, tumults, and seditions. But where there are no persecutions, there everything is peaceful, even though there are different religions. Consequently, we rightly say that the persecution of Christians has always been the cause of the greatest evils.

Whoever therefore wishes to have a peaceful realm should abstain from persecutions. He should not, however, permit the practice of a wicked religion lest what occurred to Solomon may happen to him.[45] But if he cannot prohibit it without hazard to the commonwealth, he is to suffer it to exist in order that he not bring ruin to the commonwealth.[46] So the emperor Constans, son of Constantine the Great, permitted the religion and collegia of the Arians not for their benefit, but for the commonwealth's. And Theodosius tolerated this sect against his will.

Franz Burckhard therefore errs,[47] and the Jesuits with him, who think that the magistrate is not able to tolerate diverse religions. For it is not asked whether two or more religions may be possible, which we deny with them. Nor is it asked whether the magistrate is able to embrace two or more religions, which we deny. Nor is it asked whether the magistrate has the power of deciding against the Word of God about religion, which is denied. But it is asked, when certain cities or estates in a realm embrace different opinions in their creeds — for the defence of which each alleges the Word of God — whether the magistrate who embraces the opinion of one party may persecute the remaining dissenters by force of arms and the sword. We may say in this case that the magistrate who is not able, without peril to the commonwealth, to change or overcome the discrepancy in religion and creed ought to tolerate the dissenters for the sake of public peace and tranquillity, blinking his eyes and permitting them to exercise unapproved religion, lest the entire realm, and with it the household of the church, be overthrown. He shall therefore tolerate the practice of diverse religions as a skilled navigator bears with diverse and conflicting winds and clashing waves. Just as amidst these winds and waves the navigator brings his ship safely into the harbour, so the magistrate directs the commonwealth in a manner that keeps it free from ruin for the welfare of the church.

The second heading under the defence and protection of the church is the removal and abolition of all obstacles and impediments by which the welfare, development, and advancement of churches and schools are hindered.... The magistrate shall therefore publish interdicts that prohibit the importation or sale of heretical books in the province. He shall not permit heretics or atheists to be admitted to office in the church or schools, nor shall he tolerate conventicles and collegia for wicked religion to be secretly held.... The magistrate shall take care that in all matters in which he is able he does not fail to furnish whatever may be necessary for the true acknowledgement and reverence of God....

1. [Chapters XXVIII-XXXVI, together with the first and larger part of XXXVII, and the latter part of XXXVII respectively.]

2. 'For if anyone does not take responsibility for his own, and especially those of his household, he has denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.' I Timothy 5: 8. 'Whoever presides, let him preside with care.' Romans 12: 2.

3. [Chapters XXVIII-XXXVI and the first part of XXXVII respectively.]

4. [Chapters XXVIII and XXIX-XXXVI respectively. In this translation, however, Chapter XXXVII will also be presented as a part of 'Secular Administration', largely because its discussion of the administration of things, both public and private, is almost entirely civil or secular in nature.]

5. Commentarii (II Samuel 23: 3).

6. I Chronicles 23 ff.; I Kings 4 ff.; II Chronicles 2: 12; 14; 15; 17; 19; 23; 30 f.; 34 f.; II Kings 12; 18; 22.

7. We have identified the ecclesiastical functions in Chapter VIII above.

8. We will discuss the magistrate's role more specifically and extensively in this chapter. In his performance of this role the clergy and all others are expected to obey the magistrate. Romans 13.

9. So teach the examples of David (II Samuel 12; 24), Hezekiah (II Kings 20: 19), Asa (II Chronicles 16), Jehoshaphat (II Chronicles 20), Jeroboam (I Kings 13), Jehu (I Kings 16), Ahab (I Kings 21), Ahaziah (II Kings 1), and Manasseh (II Kings 21). See also Jeremiah 1: 10; Ezekiel 3: 2 ff.; and Hebrews 13: 17.

10. Exodus 12.

11. Judges 6.

12. II Samuel 6. See also Solomon (I Kings 2 f.; 6 f.; II Chronicles 1), and Asa (I Kings 15: 12-15).

13. II Chronicles 24.

14. II Chronicles 29; II Kings 22.

15. See the following examples: Deuteronomy 32; Joshua 23 f.; I Chronicles 29; I Kings 8; II Chronicles 14; 20; 30; 34; I Samuel 12:14 ff.; Ezra 3: 1 ff.; Nehemiah 3; Psalms 22; 122; 132; Leviticus 8; 10: 16 f.; Numbers 4: 15 ff.

16. Psalm 24: 1.

17. [I Timothy 6: 15.]

18. Deuteronomy 26: 17-19.

19. See the imperial German constitutions of 1555 [when Ferdinand I was elected emperor], and Chapter XIX above [which presents the laws and conditions under which Charles V was elected emperor in 1519].

20. For this reason many kings wished to be priests and pontiffs, as Peter Gregory says. De republica, VIII, 2, 6-9. Such were Melchizedek (Genesis 14), Samuel (I Samuel 3 ff.) and Eli before Samuel (I Samuel 2).

21. Code VIII, 39, 3.

22. Digest XLVI, 1, 22.

23. I Kings 14: 16. See also Junius Brutus, Defence of Liberty Against Tyrants, quest. 2.

24. [Althusius here quotes or refers to the following Biblical material: I Samuel 12:17, 25; 13:14; Ezekiel 7: 23 ff.; Deuteronomy 28: 45 ff.; 29:12 ff; II Kings 25: 9; 17; II Chronicles 21: 14; 24: 20, 23; 15; I Kings 11: 33; Judges 2: 20; I Samuel 15: 26; II Samuel 21: 1 ff.; 24: 2 ff.; Jeremiah 15: 4 ff.; 17: 20 ff.; I Kings 16: 2 ff.; II Chronicles 21: 13 f.; 34: 23 f.; I Kings 14: 16; II Kings 17: 34-41; Psalm 82; II.Kings 25: 9; 17; Isaiah 60: 12; Psalm 73: 27; 2: 10 f.; 94: 15, 20; I Kings 12: 23 ff.; Ezra 6: 12; Joshua 24: 11, 20; Judges 6: 6. For profane examples he calls attention to Peter Gregory, De republica, VIII, 2; XIII, 10; Lambert Daneau, Politices christianae, III; Junius Brutus, Defence of Liberty Against Tyrants, quest, 1 and 2; Melchior Junius, Politicarum quaestionum, I, quest. 6. He also notes that 'the entire Florentine realm was overthrown because of the violation and rupture of this covenant, and the idolatry and sins of the inhabitants'.]

25. The King and the Regal Power, IV, 6.

26. I Chronicles 11: 3-5; II Samuel 5: 3; I Samuel 10: 17 ff.; II Chronicles 23: 3; II Kings 11: 17; 14: 21; and other evidences that we have mentioned above.

27. The King and the Regal Power, IV, 8.

28. Many testimonies exist concerning the compact of the people and king entered into with God: II Kings 11: 17; 23: 1-4; II Samuel 3: 20; II Chronicles 15: 12-15; 23: 16. A formula for this compact, together with a subscribing list of contractors is given in Nehemiah 10.

29. This is evident from Deuteronomy 17: 16 ff; Joshua 1: 8; I Samuel 12: 15 ff.; Exodus 19 f.; 28-30.

30. II Corinthians 5: 18-20; Acts 6: 4.

31. Concerning the presbytery, see Chapter VIII above.

32. Romans 13; Matthew 17: 27; Acts 26; Novel LXXXIII (pref.); LXXXVI, 1; CXXIII, 20 f.; Marsilius of Padua, The Defender of the Peace, II, 4.

33. [In Chapter VIII Althusius identified the inspector as one who presided over a diocese, or a bishop.]

34. Examples of these pious visitations can be seen in I Samuel 7: 3; II Kings 2: 4, 6; I Kings 15: 11; II Chronicles 31: 4; 34: 3, 8; 19: 4-6; Acts 14: 21; 15: 36, 41; 18: 23; and in many other places referred to by Wilhelm Zepper, De politica ecclesiastica, III, 11.

35. Exodus 12: 1; Leviticus 9: 1; 11: 1; 13: 1; 15: 1; Numbers 2: 1; 4: 1; 19: 1; 20: 23; 26: 1; II Chronicles 17: 7-9. Ecclesiastical ministers were employed by David (II Samuel 7: 2; II Chronicles 29: 25); Jehoash (II Kings 12: 1 f., 10), and Josiah (II Chronicles 34: 15, 20). For examples of aid provided and furnished by the magistrate in ecclesiastical affairs, see Joshua 5: 2; 6: 6; 8: 30, 35; II Samuel 6: 10; I Chronicles 23 ff.; I Kings 5: 6-8; II Chronicles 15: 8; 17; 24; 34 f.; Exodus 5: 1; Numbers 1: 17; 14 f.; 27: 2; 32: 2. See the examples of David (II Samuel 7: 2; II Chronicles 29: 25), Solomon (II Chronicles 29: 15; 1 King's 8: 1), Jehoash (II Chronicles 34: 5, 20), Zerubbabel (Ezra 3: 2), and Hezekiah (II Chronicles 29).

36. This is evident from the example of other pious kings. II Chronicles 17; 22; 31; 34; II Kings 18; 22 f.; Exodus 32; Joshua 22. See Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, V, 10.

37. See the examples of Josiah, Jehoshaphat, and Hezekiah.

38. I maintain this by the example of the Jus Civilis (Code I, 9); Peter Martyr, Commentarii (Judges 1: 36); Jerome Zanchius, De redemptione, I, 19, 5; Georg Sohn, Commentarius (Psalm 59); Lambert Daneau, Politices christianae, IV, 2; Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, III, 25; V, 2.

39. [The pertinent references to Martyr and Zanchius are found in the preceding footnote.]

40. See Peter Martyr, Commentarii (Judges 1: 36). I have also discussed this in my De civile conversatione.

41. See the example of the Apostle Paul who did not turn away from the Corinthian church, corrupted as it was by many errors. I Corinthians 15. Nor did Christ reject his disciples even though they were involved in great errors, but he was patient with them and trained them to know better.

42. Luke 9: 55.

43. Eusebius, The Life of Constantine, I, 38.

44. 'The arms of our soldiers are not of the flesh, but are made efficacious by heaven for the overthrow of the ramparts." II Corinthians 10: 4. 'The servant of God ought to be gentle toward all, fitted for teaching, and patient toward evil persons.' II Timothy 2: 24.

45. I Kings 11: 4 ff.

46. Jean Bodin, The Commonweale, III, 7.

47. [De autonomia.]