By July, 1787, two New York delegates to the Federal Convention, Robert
Yates and John Lansing, had departed because they objected to the shape
being taken by the Constitution being developed, and by June, 1788, when
the New York Convention met to consider ratification, it was dominated by
an anti-federal majority of 46 to 19, led by Governor George Clinton.
However, as the Convention opened, news arrived of the ratifications by
the ninth and tenth states, New Hampshire and Virginia. This changed the
issue to whether New York was to join the new Union or remain outside of
it, and debate shifted to how the new Constitution might be improved. The
federalists were led in debate by Alexander Hamilton and Robert R.
Livingston. The most profound of the anti-federalist speakers was
Melancton Smith, who spoke in response to remarks made by Hamilton in the
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