Rent-Seeking, Public Choice, and The Prisoner's Dilemma,
by Kelley L. Ross. From the Friesian School site.
This classic problem of game theory sheds light on many of the
problems that have plagued ethical and political philosophers
throughout history. It addresses that class of situations in which
there is a fundamental conflict between what is a rational choice for
an individual member of a group and for the group as a whole. It helps
us understand how such dilemmas can be resolved for the greater good.
The Tragedy of the Commons, by
Garrett Hardin. This discusses a situation which is a version of the
Prisoner's Dilemma. Also see further discussion here.
Resolving the Tragedy
of the Commons by Creating Private Property Rights in Wildlife, by
Robert J. Smith, Cato Institute publication.
Cooperation Web Site.
The Prisoner's Dilemma
Sep. 1995 — The entire issue of this journal was dedicated to the
subject, and has been put online.
— Collection of links to subject by Ariel Dolan.
Prisoners' Dilemma Game — Play it yourself.
You Have Found The
Prisoners' Dilemma — Play the game.
Strategic Uncertainty, and Coordination Failure: Evidence from Repeated
Dominance Solvable Games, by John B. Van Huyck, John M. Wildenthal,
and Raymond C. Battalio.
Chaos, cheating and
cooperation: potential solutions to the Prisoner's Dilemma, by
Björn Brembs. Extended discussion of iterated prisoner's dilemma.
The Prisoners' Dilemma,
by F. Heylighen. Collection of links and documents.
This is a growing body of theory that explores the conflict between
what is rational for individuals and minorities and what is rational
for the group as a whole.
Democracy: An Introduction to Public Choice, J. Patrick Gunning
— Textbook on public choice theory for economists and political
scientists that is accessible to laypersons.
Introduction to Public
Choice Theory, by Leon Felkins (original 1997 Jan. 10, revised 2001
Nov. 8) — The social phenomena discussed in this series of essays all
center around the problem of individuals in groups faced with the
choice of doing what is best for themselves or what is best for the
group. Instances of the phenomena are called by many different names:
"Volunteer's Dilemma", "Prisoner's Dilemma", "Collective Choice",
"Rational Choice", "Social Choice", and "Voter's Paradox", to list just
The Calculus of
Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy, James
M. Buchanan and Gordon Tullock. Explains why policy tends to be
dominated by special interests to the disadvantage of the general
interests of the people. This was the book that opened the field of
public choice theory. In 1986 Buchanan was awarded the Nobel Prize in
Economics for his discoveries in this field.
Choice, and The Prisoner's Dilemma, Kelley L. Ross (1996, 2002) —
Examines the process by which those who most benefit from public policy
come to control public policymaking processes.
Public Choice Theory:
An Introduction, Julie Novak.
Public Choice Theory:
Not the Whole Story, Tibor R. Machan.
Public Choice Society
— Association for public choice researchers.
Center for Study of
Public Choice, George Mason University — Have graduate program in
public choice theory.
Diffusion of Public Choice, May 19-20, 2000, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia — Conference.
Public Choice Theory,
Morgan Reynolds, Professor of Economics, Texas A & M University.
The Assault on the
First Amendment: Public Choice and Political Correctness, Paul H.
Democracy As Tyranny,
Keith Preston — Review of Hans Hermann Hoppe, Democracy: The God
That Failed – The Economics and Politics of Monarchy, Democracy and
Natural Order, (Transaction Publishers, 2001). Uses public-choice
ideas to argue for breakup of nations into sovereign village-states.
These links formerly worked but no longer do. Anyone who can tell us
what the new URLs might be are encouraged to inform us.
David Werth Prisoners'
Dilemma computer simulation.
Project in Java — If you have Java, here is source code to run a
Dilemma — Another game in Java.
Prisoner's Dilemma and
Social Cooperation, by Russell A. Marion
Review of Axelrod's
Evolution of Cooperation, by Kevin McFarlane.
Review of Axelrod's
Evolution of Cooperation, by Sophia Chan.
by Robert Axelrod and Lisa D'Ambrosio.